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Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities

OSH Frequently Asked Questions


  1. What types of data are available from the IIF program?

    The IIF program produces a wide range of statistics on workplace fatal and nonfatal injuries and illnesses by industry and worker characteristics. More information about our program and the statistics we produce can be found here.

  2. What is the scope of BLS workplace safety data?

    The Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII) reports estimates of nonfatal injuries and illnesses for private industry, state and local governments. Current exceptions include workers on farms with 10 or fewer employees, private household workers, volunteers, and federal government workers. For more information, please see our Handbook of Methods.

    The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) is a comprehensive national measure of all fatal workplace injuries. For more information, please see our Handbook of Methods.

  3. Where can I find the most recent injury rates for my industry?

    The most recently published nonfatal incidence rates by industry can be found here.

  4. Where can I find information on occupations with the highest injury rates?

    • Nonfatal

      The latest numbers and rates of nonfatal workplace injuries and illnesses by occupation can be found in our tables and charts.

    • Fatal

      The latest numbers and rates of fatal workplace injuries by occupation can be found in our tables and charts.

  5. Does BLS calculate employer costs?

    No. BLS does not provide estimates for the cost associated with workplace injuries.

  6. Is the BLS count of workplace injuries and illnesses complete?

    BLS has funded multiple research projects that examined the completeness and quality of the occupational injury and illness data collected by the SOII. These studies found that the SOII did not capture some cases that appeared to be within its scope; however, the estimated magnitude of the undercount varied dramatically depending on the methodology employed by the researchers.

    For additional background information on the completeness of the SOII injury and illness counts and an update on current research please see the SOII data quality research page.

  7. I tested the statistical significance of a statement of comparison between two estimates. Why did I get a different result than what BLS published?

    The variation in estimates is measured by the percent relative standard error (RSE), which is used to calculate confidence intervals around sample estimates and test comparative statements. The IIF program publishes RSEs on its website to one decimal place for ease of display but may calculate confidence intervals and conduct significance tests using RSEs at higher levels of precision. As a result, public users who conduct their own significance tests from published RSEs may, from time to time, get slightly different results than BLS. Additional information on the reliability of IIF estimates and the calculation of confidence intervals can be found at

For employers

  1. How can I assess my establishment's safety record?

    You can assess your establishment's safety record by comparing your incidence rate relative to the national rates for similar establishments.

    Industry (nonfatal) injury and illness rates from the most recent published data can be found here.

    Information on calculating your firm's incidence rate can be found here.

  2. How do I complete the Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses?

    For information on how to complete the survey, please see our Survey Respondents page.

  3. Where can I find another company's injury rates?

    Data provided to the Bureau of Labor Statistics is considered strictly confidential, and unfortunately we cannot provide this information.

    For more information, please see our Data Integrity Guidelines and Confidentiality Pledge and Laws. For information on establishments that may have been cited for workplace violations or for other regulatory guidelines, please contact the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).

Accessing our data

  1. How can I access IIF data?

    There are multiple ways to access IIF data.

    Often, depending on the level of information sought, the requested information can be found in our resource tables, published annually:

    Nonfatal data — injury and illness data by industry. Additional details on the worker injured, the event leading to injury, and source of injury are available for cases involving days away from work.

    Fatal data — total counts of fatal workplace injuries, including details on the worker injured, event leading to injury, and source of injury.

    For a more customized browsing experience, we recommend using the Data Profiles tool.

  2. Is there an easy way to retrieve an overview of injuries for a particular occupation in a particular industry and/or event?

    Yes. You can generate an online Data Profiles which allows you to choose a topic of interest (such as a detailed industry or occupation) and view crosstabs. Below is an example of an industry Data Profiles that you can create online:

    1. Go to our Online Profiles tool:
    2. Select "Case and Demographic Numbers" for non-fatal data.
    3. Select 2017.
    4. Select "All U.S." or the state you want. Select Single year or a range of years beginning with 2011.
    5. Select Industry. Then select Numeric or NAME.
    6. Select the specific Sub-characteristic (in your case, XXXXXX NAICS INDUSTRY). Then select the ownership code.
    7. Select your output type. The first will create an Excel file based on your criteria. The second will generate the data inside the browser for you to review.

  3. Does BLS provide access to restricted or confidential data?

    Yes, but strictly for research purposes only. Access to microdata for the Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII) and Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) programs are available in one of our Federal Statistical Research Data Centers (FSRDCs) throughout the country and onsite at BLS in Washington, D.C. More information can be found here. Access to a research file requires a well-defined research question that has to go through an approval process and takes approximately 6 months.

    The CFOI micro fatality research file is also available to access through the BLS Virtual Data Enclave (VDE). Access to the CFOI research file through the VDE requires the same application and approval process as onsite access.

    For more information, the IIF program can be reached at (202) 691-6170 or by e-mailing IIF Staff.

  4. Does the IIF program provide flat files for published data?

    The IIF program has a number of flat files that contain a large amount of fatal and nonfatal data. The Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) and Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII) each maintain these flat files. Each set of files corresponds with certain years of data. Here are the series values for the data since 2003:

    The ".txt" files in each section explains the data available for that series. You can use the ".txt" file to extract data from the other files in the directory.

    Please note that our coding systems that are the foundation of the data have changed over the years and comparing such data elements are problematic and not advised.

    Each flat file has a data point associated with a unique Series ID. For more information on Series ID formats and to download data prior to 2003 see here.

  5. Can BLS provide data that isn't currently online?

    BLS can provide data in addition to what is available online. If you have a specific data request, contact us to see if this is something we can provide.

    If there is specific information that you would like to request, the IIF program can be reached at (202) 691-6170 or by submitting a data request online.

  6. Why are there noticeably fewer counts in CFOI data since reference year 2019?

    Starting with the reference year 2019, CFOI modernized its disclosure methodology further strengthening its protection of confidential data. As a result of these necessary protections there are fewer publishable counts in CFOI. Disclosure protection is always an ongoing balance between protecting confidential data from disclosure and providing useful data to users.

    Individually identifiable data collected by the CFOI are used exclusively for statistical purposes and are protected under the Confidential Information Protection and Statistical Efficiency Act of 2002 (CIPSEA). These data are collected under a pledge of confidentiality and therefore require BLS to prevent disclosure of identifying information of decedents.

  7. If CFOI data for the industry that I am interested in are not available in reference year 2019, do I have any other options?

    If fatal injury counts at an individual ownership level (i.e. private, federal, state, local) are not available, you may find more data available at the “All ownership” level. You can get these data by running an Industry Profile for “All ownerships” in the Profiles Tool. In the Profiles Tool, select “Fatal Injuries Numbers,” then follow these steps:

    1. Select a year.
    2. Select a geographic area. Choose a beginning year.
    3. For Characteristic Type slect "Industry." Choose between "Name or description" or "Numeric."
    4. Under Subcharacteristic, choose the industry you desire. For Ownership, choose "All ownership."

    This will generate either an Excel or HTML table.

  8. How is COVID-19 reflected in SOII data?

    Occupational injuries and illnesses collected in the 2020 SOII include cases of COVID-19 when a worker was infected as a result of performing their work-related duties and met other recordkeeping criteria. COVID-19 is considered a respiratory illness under criteria established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). The SOII collects detailed case information, including nature, for incidences requiring at least one day away from work and codes these cases using the Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System (OIICS). While OIICS does not include a code specifically for COVID-19, applicable days away from work cases were included in the Nature code 3299 – “Other diseases due to viruses, not elsewhere classified.” Additionally, these cases were coded under the following categories based on the Occupational Injuries and Illnesses Classification System, version 2.01:

    • Part code 6: - Body systems
    • Event code 550: - Exposure to other harmful substance, unspecified
    • Source code 533: – Viruses

    For more information on the impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on SOII and CFOI, see:

    Selected data for Nature code 3299 and additional discussion of how COVID-19 is reflected in the SOII can be found at

OSHA/BLS reporting

  1. Is OSHA electronic reporting the same as the Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses?

    No. OSHA's Injury Tracking Application (ITA)is an electronic reporting requirement for establishments developed and maintained by OSHA. The SOII is a survey of establishments administered by BLS for statistical purposes. Some employers may be required to report to OSHA and may also be sampled for participation in the SOII.

    More information on OSHA electronic reporting requirements can be found here.

  2. Will BLS use information collected by OSHA?

    In some instances, yes. Some respondents will be able to provide their OSHA identification number (OSHA ID) to import to BLS the data that they have submitted to the OSHA ITA in that same year. If BLS can successfully match establishment information with information reported to OSHA, data that have been reported to the OSHA ITA will be automatically imported into the SOII Internet Data Collection Facility (IDCF). Imported data are taken from the OSHA 300A form, “Summary of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses.” Additional information may need to be entered manually to complete the SOII.

  3. I tried to enter my OSHA Identification Number (OSHA ID) when entering data for BLS and it did not work. Why?

    BLS has implemented several matching criteria in addition to the OSHA ID to ensure the confidentiality and security of SOII respondents, and to ensure that the establishment matches the location(s) sampled by the SOII.

  4. Where can I find my OSHA ID number?

    The OSHA ID number is sent to a respondent by OSHA once they enter their information into the OSHA ITA system. The OSHA ID would appear in a confirmation email sent from with the subject “OSHA Injury and Illness Report: Successful Submission(s).”

    OSHA ID email
  5. Can we submit data to only BLS or OSHA?

    No. If you receive a mandatory survey from BLS and are required also to provide information to OSHA, you must submit it to both agencies.

  6. Where can I find additional information regarding OSHA's recordkeeping rule requiring employers to electronically submit injury and illness data?

    Visit OSHA's website for additional information on their recordkeeping rule requiring employers to electronically submit injury and illness data to OSHA. Additional questions should be directed to OSHA.

DJTR collection

  1. Will case and demographic estimates for DAFW and DJTR cases be a regularly produced data product?

    Yes. Case and demographic estimates for Days Away from Work (DAFW) and for Days of Job Transfer or Restriction (DJTR) cases will be produced biennially (every 2 years), starting with combined data from reference years 2021 and 2022 that will be published in the fall of 2023. The final publication of single year DAFW estimates will be for reference year 2020 that will be published in November, 2021.

  2. What have we learned from these data?

    A series of studies conducted by BLS to collect data for occupational injuries and illnesses that resulted in days of job transfer or restriction (DJTR) for reference years 2011 through 2019 provided important insights into workplace safety and health data that were previously unavailable. Analysis of DJTR data showed that their inclusion provides a more complete understanding of the circumstances leading to occupational injuries and illnesses than DAFW cases alone can provide.

    For example, DJTR cases as a percentage of DART cases in the Food services and drinking places industry remained the same regardless the age of the worker. While in the Amusement, gambling, and recreation industry, workers under the age of 45 had a higher percentage of DJTR cases than DAFW cases. If studying only a few selected industries, policy makers and researchers would be unable to determine the complete picture of this phenomenon. If all industries could be analyzed, safety resources and return-to-work strategies could be developed to address the unique work experiences by the age of the worker or by other characteristics.

  3. Will DJTR data be aggregated for detailed categories such as occupation or nature of injury?

    Yes. The biennial publication of estimates for case circumstances and worker demographics beginning with reference years 2021-2022 is intended to provide the same level of detail among DJTR and DAFW cases as was previously available only for DAFW cases.

  4. Why will case and demographic estimates be changing to a biennial publication?

    Various factors were considered to determine a balanced approach to the addition of case and demographic estimates for occupational injuries and illnesses that resulted in days of job transfer or restriction (DJTR). Biennial publication of case and demographic estimates is intended to be resource neutral for collection of these details, burden neutral for employers to report these details, and continue to meet data users’ needs regarding the level of detail available from these estimates. Biennial publication of case and demographic estimates supports these goals.

Contact us

If you have any additional questions or would like additional information, the IIF program can be reached at (202) 691-6170 or by e-mailing IIF Staff.


Last Modified Date: March 18, 2022