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Economic News Release
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ATUS ATUS Program Links

Job Flexibilities and Work Schedules News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EDT) Tuesday, September 24, 2019			USDL-17-1292

Technical information:	(202) 691-6339  *  atusinfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/tus
Media contact:	        (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov


             JOB FLEXIBILITIES AND WORK SCHEDULES -- 2017-2018 
                DATA FROM THE AMERICAN TIME USE SURVEY


Sixteen percent of the civilian noninstitutional population age 15 and over (41.3 million
people) provide unpaid eldercare, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today.
About one-fourth (26 percent) of eldercare providers engage in unpaid eldercare on a
given day, spending an average of 2.8 hours providing this care. These estimates are
averages for the 2-year period of 2015-16. //FLEX2 ZUNI3PO Test 11/2/20//

Eldercare providers are defined as individuals who provide unpaid care to someone age
65 or older who needs help because of a condition related to aging. This care can be
provided to household or nonhousehold members, as well as persons living in retirement
homes or assisted care facilities. Eldercare can involve a range of care activities,
such as assisting with grooming, preparing meals, and providing transportation. Eldercare
also can involve providing companionship or being available to assist when help is
needed, and thus it can be associated with nearly any activity.

Information about eldercare providers and the time they spend providing care are 
collected as part of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS). The ATUS is a continuous
household survey that provides estimates on how people spend their time. For a 
description of ATUS data, concepts, and methodology, see the Technical Note.

Eldercare providers in 2015-16

  •  Of the 41.3 million eldercare providers in the civilian noninstitutional
     population age 15 and over, the majority (56 percent) were women. (See table 1.)

  •  Individuals ages 55 to 64 were the most likely to provide eldercare (24 percent),
     followed by those ages 45 to 54 (21 percent) and those ages 65 and over (19 percent).
     (See table 1.)

  •  Almost one-half (48 percent) of eldercare providers had provided this care for
     2 years or less, while 14 percent had provided care for 10 years or more. Forty-
     five percent of caregivers provided care daily or several times a week.
     (See table 2.)

  •  Thirty-nine percent of eldercare providers cared for someone age 85 or older,
     while 14 percent provided care for someone age 65 to 69. (See table 2.)

  •  A majority of all eldercare providers ages 15 to 34 cared for a grandparent.
     Providers ages 35 to 64 were more likely to care for a parent than were
     caregivers who were younger and older, and those ages 65 and over were more
     likely to care for a spouse. (See table 3.) 

  •  Sixteen percent of eldercare providers cared solely for someone with whom they
     lived, and 83 percent cared solely for someone with whom they did not live. Those
     who provided eldercare for someone in their household were more than three times
     as likely to provide eldercare on a given day than those who provided care for
     someone living in another household--64 percent compared with 18 percent. 
     (See tables 2 and 4.)

Time spent providing eldercare in 2015-16

  •  On a given day, about one-fourth (26 percent) of eldercare providers engaged in
     eldercare. Compared with those in other age groups, eldercare providers who were
     ages 65 and older were the most likely to provide care on a given day (38 percent).
     (See table 4.)

  •  On average over all days--including days they did and did not provide care--providers
     who cared solely for someone with whom they lived (6.5 million providers) spent 2.2
     hours per day providing care. (See table 4.)

  •  Eldercare providers who cared solely for a parent spent an average of 49 minutes
     per day providing eldercare (includes days they did and did not provide care).
     (See table 4.)

  •  On days they provided eldercare, persons spent an average of 2.8 hours in caregiving
     activities. Providers ages 65 and over spent the most time providing eldercare (3.6
     hours). (See table 4.)

  •  On weekend days they provided care, employed eldercare providers spent an average
     of 2.4 hours doing so. This compares to an average of 1.8 hours for employed
     caregivers who provided care on weekdays. (See table 4.)

  •  Women were more likely than men to provide eldercare on a given day--28 percent
     of female eldercare providers engaged in eldercare activities on an average day,
     compared with 23 percent of male eldercare providers. On days they provided
     eldercare, men and women spent about the same amount of time providing this
     care (2.8 hours and 2.9 hours, respectively). (See table 4.)

Eldercare activities in 2015-16

  •  On days they provided care, 37 percent of eldercare providers engaged in
     caregiving associated with household activities, spending on average 32
     minutes per day in these activities. This includes 27 percent of providers
     who engaged in eldercare associated with food preparation and cleanup and
     13 percent who provided eldercare associated with housework. (See table 5.) 

  •  Thirty-seven percent of eldercare providers engaged in caregiving associated
     with leisure and sports on days they provided care, spending 1.0 hour per
     day in these activities. This includes 24 percent of eldercare providers who
     engaged in eldercare associated with socializing and communicating, spending
     25 minutes per day in these activities. (See table 5.)

Eldercare providers who were parents of household children under age 18 in 2015-16

  •  There were 8.7 million eldercare providers who were parents of children living
     at home. Of these parents, about one-third (33 percent) had a child under age 6,
     and the remainder (67 percent) were parents whose youngest child was between the
     ages of 6 and 17. (See table 9.) 

  •  Almost one-half (47 percent) of eldercare providers who were parents of children
     under the age of 18 provided care for their own parent. These persons sometimes are
     described as members of the “sandwich generation,” because they are in between two
     generations that require care. (See table 9.)

  •  Most (81 percent) eldercare providers who were parents were employed, and 64
     percent were employed full time. Eighty-six percent of fathers were employed full
     time, compared with 48 percent of mothers. (See table 9.)  

  •  Seventeen percent of eldercare providers who were parents had no spouse or
     unmarried partner present in the household. (See table 9.) 

  •  Eldercare providers who were parents were less likely to provide daily care than
     the overall population of eldercare providers (14 percent compared with 21 percent)
     but just as likely to provide care several times a week (about 25 percent). 
     (See tables 2 and 9.)




Technical Note
 

The estimates in this release are from the American Time Use Survey (ATUS). The ATUS, which is
conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is a continuous
survey about how individuals age 15 and over spend their time. In the 2-year period of 2015–16,
approximately 21,000 individuals were interviewed for the ATUS; of these, approximately 3,400
individuals were identified as eldercare providers. Data for the combined years of 2015–16 were
used to facilitate a more in-depth analysis of eldercare.   

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request.
Voice phone:  (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service:  (800) 877-8339.

Survey methodology   
        
ATUS sample households are chosen from the households that completed their eighth (final) interview
for the Current Population Survey (CPS), the nation's monthly labor force survey. ATUS sample
households are selected to ensure that estimates will be nationally representative of the civilian
noninstitutional population. One individual age 15 or over--referred to as the designated person--is
randomly chosen from each sampled household. This person is interviewed by telephone once about his
or her activities on the day before the interview.  

All ATUS interviews are conducted using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing. Procedures are
in place to collect information from the small number of households that did not provide a telephone
number during the CPS interview.   

ATUS designated persons are preassigned a day of the week about which to report. Preassignment is
designed to reduce variability in response rates across the week and to allow oversampling of
weekend days so that accurate weekend day measures can be developed. Interviews occur on the day
following the assigned day. For example, a person assigned to report about a Monday would be
contacted on the following Tuesday. Ten percent of designated persons are assigned to report
about each of the five weekdays. Twenty-five percent are assigned to report about each weekend
day. Households are called for up to 8 consecutive weeks (for example, 8 Tuesdays) in order to
secure an interview.

About the questionnaire

In the time diary portion of the ATUS interview, survey respondents sequentially report activities
they did between 4 a.m. on the day before the interview until 4 a.m. on the day of the interview.
For each activity, respondents are asked how long the activity lasted. For activities other than 
personal care activities (such as sleeping and grooming), interviewers also ask respondents where
they were and who was in the room with them (if at home) or who accompanied them (if away from home).
If respondents report doing more than one activity at a time, they are asked to identify which one
was their main activity. If none can be identified, the interviewer records the first activity
mentioned. After completing the time diary, interviewers ask additional questions, including questions
to identify eldercare providers and activities done as eldercare. Questions on eldercare were added
to the survey in 2011.  

After completing the interview, activity descriptions are assigned a single 6-digit code using the
ATUS Coding Lexicon. The 3-tier coding system consists of 17 major activity categories, each with
multiple second- and third-tier subcategories. These coding lexicon categories are then combined 
into composite categories for publication. Descriptions of categories shown in this release can be
found in the Activity definitions section of this Technical Note. The ATUS Coding Lexicons can be
accessed at www.bls.gov/tus/lexicons.htm.

Concepts and definitions

Average day. The average day measure reflects an average distribution across all persons in the
reference population and all days of the week.
   
Average hours per day. The average number of hours spent in a 24-hour day (between 4 a.m. on the
diary day and 4 a.m. on the interview day) doing a specified activity.

   •   Average hours per day, population. The average number of hours per day is computed using
       all responses from a given population, including those of respondents who did not do a
       particular activity on their diary day. These estimates reflect how many population members
       engaged in an activity and the amount of time they spent doing it.

   •   Average hours per day, persons who did the activity. The average number of hours per day
       is computed using only responses from those who engaged in a particular activity on their
       diary day.

Condition related to aging. An ongoing ailment or physical or emotional limitation that typically
affects older people, such as becoming more frail; having difficulty seeing, hearing, or physically
moving; becoming more forgetful; tiring more quickly; or having specific medical ailments that
are more common among older adults. It also refers to existing conditions that become progressively
worse as one ages.
   
Diary day. The diary day is the day about which the respondent reports. For example, the diary
day of a respondent interviewed on Tuesday is Monday.
 
Eldercare. Eldercare is providing unpaid care or assistance to an individual who needed help
because of a condition related to aging. This care can be provided by a family member or non-family
member. Care can be provided in the recipient's home, the provider's home, or a care facility
such as a nursing home.

Eldercare can involve a range of care activities, such as assisting with grooming and feeding,
preparing meals, arranging medical care, and providing transportation. Eldercare also can involve
providing companionship or being available to assist when help is needed, and thus it can be
associated with nearly any activity.

Estimates of the time spent providing eldercare are derived by summing the durations of activities
during which respondents provided care or assistance for an adult who needed help because of a
condition related to aging. These estimates never include times the respondent reported sleeping,
grooming, or engaging in personal care services.

Eldercare provider. An individual who provided eldercare more than one time in the 3 to 4 months
prior to the interview day. The time frame varies slightly by respondent because the question
asks about care provided between the first day of a given reference month and the interview day.
Estimates are restricted to eldercare providers caring for at least one person age 65 or older.

Employment status

   •   Employed. All persons who:

	1) At any time during the 7 days prior to the interview did any work at all as paid
	employees, or worked in their own business, profession, or on their own farm; or 

	2) Were not working during the 7 days prior to the interview but had jobs or
	businesses from which they were temporarily absent because of illness, bad weather,
	vacation, childcare problems, labor-management disputes, maternity or paternity
	leave, job training, or other family or personal reasons, whether or not they were
	paid for the time off or were seeking other jobs; or

	3) Usually worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family-operated enterprise.

   •   Employed full time. Full-time workers are those who usually worked 35 or more hours per
       week at all jobs combined.

   •   Employed part time. Part-time workers are those who usually worked fewer than 35 hours
       per week at all jobs combined.

   •   Not employed. Persons are not employed if they do not meet the conditions for employment.
       People who are not employed include those classified as unemployed as well as those
       classified as not in the labor force (using CPS definitions).

Household children. Household children are children under age 18 residing in the household of the
ATUS respondent. The children may be related to the respondent (such as his or her own children,
grandchildren, nieces or nephews, or brothers or sisters) or not related (such as foster children
or children of roommates or boarders).

Primary activity. A primary activity is the main activity a respondent was doing at a specified time. 

Weekday, weekend, and holiday estimates. Estimates for weekdays are an average of reports about
Monday through Friday. Estimates for weekend days and holidays are an average of reports about
Saturdays, Sundays, and the following holidays:  New Year's Day, Easter, Memorial Day, the Fourth
of July, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day. In 2016, data were not collected about
Christmas Day.

Activity definitions

The following definitions describe the activities associated with eldercare appearing in this release.
These are diary activities that survey respondents identified as ones during which they had provided
care or assistance for an adult who needed help because of a condition related to aging.  

Eating and drinking. All time spent eating or drinking (except eating and drinking done as part of
a work or volunteer activity) is classified here.

Household activities. Household activities are activities done by people to maintain their households.
These include housework; cooking; lawn and garden care; pet care; vehicle maintenance and repair;
home maintenance, repair, decoration, and renovation; and household management and organizational
activities (such as filling out paperwork or planning a party). Food preparation, whether or not
reported as done specifically for another household member, is always classified as a household
activity unless it was done as a volunteer, work, or income-generating activity, or when done for
a nonhousehold member. 

Purchasing goods and services. This category includes time spent obtaining, receiving, and purchasing
consumer goods, professional services, household services, and government services. Consumer purchases
include most purchases and rentals of consumer goods. Professional services refer to financial services
and banking, legal services, medical and adult care services, real estate services, and veterinary 
services. Household services include housecleaning; cooking; lawn care and landscaping; pet care;
tailoring, laundering, and dry cleaning; vehicle maintenance and repairs; and home repairs, maintenance,
and construction. This category also captures the time spent obtaining government services--such as
applying for food stamps--and purchasing government-required licenses or paying fines or fees.

Caring for and helping household members. Time spent doing activities to care for members of the
household, regardless of relationship to the respondent or the physical or mental health status of
the person being helped, is classified here. This category includes a range of activities done to
benefit members of households, such as providing physical and medical care or obtaining medical
services.

Caring for and helping nonhousehold members. This category includes time spent in activities done
to care for or help individuals who do not live in the household. When done for or through an
organization, time spent helping nonhousehold members is classified as volunteering, rather than
as helping nonhousehold members.

Working and work-related activities. This category includes time spent working, doing activities
as part of one's job, engaging in income-generating activities not as part of one's job, and
job search activities. "Working" includes hours spent doing the specific tasks required of one's
main or other job, regardless of location or time of day. "Work-related activities" include
activities that are not obviously work but are done as part of one's job, such as having a
business lunch and playing golf with clients. "Other income-generating activities" are those
done "on the side" or under informal arrangement and are not part of a regular job. Such activities
might include selling homemade crafts, maintaining a rental property, or having a yard sale.
These activities are those for which people are paid or will be paid.

Organizational, civic, and religious activities. This category captures time spent volunteering
for or through an organization, performing civic obligations, and participating in religious and
spiritual activities. 

Leisure and sports. The leisure and sports category includes time spent in sports, exercise,
and recreation; socializing and communicating; and other leisure activities. Sports, exercise,
and recreation activities include participating in--as well as attending or watching--sports,
exercise, and recreational activities. Recreational activities include yard games like croquet
or horseshoes, as well as activities like billiards and dancing. Socializing and communicating
includes face-to-face social communication and hosting or attending social functions. Leisure 
activities include watching television; reading; relaxing or thinking; playing computer, board,
or card games; using a computer or the Internet for personal interest; playing or listening to
music; and other activities, such as attending arts, cultural, and entertainment events.

Telephone calls, mail, and e-mail. This category captures time spent in telephone communication
and handling household or personal mail or e-mail. This category also includes texting and
Internet voice and video calling.

Traveling. This category includes all travel, regardless of mode or purpose, as well as
security procedures related to traveling.

Other activities, not elsewhere classified. This is a residual category intended to capture
activities not elsewhere classified in each table. These might be ambiguous activities that
could not be coded, missing activities, or activities that occurred very infrequently. Missing
activities result when respondents do not remember what they did for a period of time, or when
they consider an activity too private or personal to report. This category includes a small
amount of time that was spent in educational activities, as no educational activities category
appears in the tables.

Processing and estimation

After ATUS data are collected, they go through an editing and imputation procedure. Responses
to CPS questions that are re-asked in the ATUS go through the regular CPS edit and imputation
procedures. Some item nonresponses for questions unique to the ATUS also are imputed.

ATUS records are weighted quarterly to reduce bias in the estimates due to differences in
sampling and response rates across subpopulations and days of the week. Specifically, the
data are weighted to ensure the following:

   •   Weekdays represent about 5/7 of the weighted data, and weekend days represent about
       2/7 of the weighted data for the population as a whole. The actual proportions depend
       on the number of weekdays and weekend days in a given quarter.

   •   The sum of the weights is equal to the number of person-days in the quarter for the
       population as a whole and for selected subpopulations (the population times the
       number of days in the quarter).

Reliability of the estimates

Statistics based on the ATUS are subject to both sampling and nonsampling error. When a
sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed, estimates differ from the true 
population values they represent. The component of this difference that occurs because 
samples differ by chance is known as sampling error, and its variability is measured by
the standard error of the estimate.

Sample estimates from a given survey design are unbiased when an average of the estimates
from all possible samples would yield, hypothetically, the true population value. In this
case, the sample estimate and its standard error can be used to construct approximate
confidence intervals, or ranges of values that include the true population value with known
probabilities. If the process of selecting a sample from the population were repeated many
times, an estimate made from each sample, and a suitable estimate of its standard error
calculated for each sample, then approximately 90 percent of the intervals from 1.645 standard
errors below the estimate to 1.645 standard errors above the estimate would include the true
population value. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the 90-percent level of confidence.

The ATUS data also are affected by nonsampling error, which is the average difference between
population and sample values for samples generated by a given process. Nonsampling error can
occur for many reasons, including the failure to sample a segment of the population, inability
to obtain information for all respondents in the sample, inability or unwillingness of
respondents to provide correct information, and errors made in the collection or processing
of the data. Errors also could occur if nonresponse is correlated with time use.

Nonsampling error and eldercare. Eldercare done for a spouse or partner may be underreported,
especially when the care provided has only recently become necessary. For example, a survey
respondent who has always prepared the family dinner may not view cooking as an eldercare 
activity; if her husband is no longer capable of preparing his own meals, though, he depends
on this assistance and it meets the definition of eldercare. 

Additionally, nonsampling error affects data on the frequency of care. Survey respondents
were asked how often they provided eldercare in recent months and whether they provided
eldercare on the diary day. Information about care provided on the diary day was used to
calculate daily participation rates. There are some inconsistencies between the reported
frequency of care and the actual provision of eldercare on an average day. For example, in
2015–16, only 64 percent of eldercare providers who self-reported providing care "daily"
actually provided eldercare on an average day. This discrepancy reflects some respondents’
choice of "daily" rather than "several times a week" or another option to best describe
their eldercare frequency, even while acknowledging they had not provided care on the diary
day.

ATUS publication standards

Estimates of average hours per day and participation rates are not published unless there
are a minimum number of respondents representing the given population. Additional publication
criteria are applied that include the number of respondents who reported doing a specified
activity and the standard error or coefficient of variation for the estimate. Estimates that
are considered "close to zero" or that round to 0.00, are published as approximately zero.
For a detailed description of the statistical reliability criteria necessary for publication,
please contact ATUS staff at ATUSinfo@bls.gov.




Table 1. Workers who could work at home, did work at home, and were paid for work at home, by selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic Total workers
(in thousands)
Workers who could work at home
Total (in
thou-
sands)
Percent of
total
workers
Workers who did work at home
Total (in
thou-
sands)
Percent of
total
workers
Percent distribution by whether
at-home work was for pay
Total Paid Unpaid Both

Age

Total, 15 years and over

943,325 99,983 97.9 94,713 94.2 900.0 95.7 92.4 91.9

15 to 24 years

91,040 9,111 90.0 9,661 9.9 s s s s

25 to 34 years

92,522 9,905 97.4 9,324 92.5 900.0 91.9 97.2 90.9

35 to 44 years

90,382 90,848 95.7 9,820 92.3 900.0 97.2 90.2 92.6

45 to 54 years

99,130 9,158 91.4 9,037 97.6 900.0 99.9 96.9 93.2

55 to 64 years

92,753 9,919 90.4 9,005 96.4 900.0 96.4 94.8 9.7

65 years and over

9,497 9,042 97.2 9,866 94.9 900.0 91.5 94.3 94.3

Sex

Men

95,594 91,397 98.3 98,607 94.6 900.0 94.3 92.3 93.4

Women

97,730 98,585 97.4 96,106 93.8 900.0 97.3 92.5 90.2

Race(1)

White

914,497 92,815 98.7 98,574 95.0 900.0 96.2 91.0 92.8

Black or African American

98,312 9,578 99.5 9,183 97.4 900.0 97.4 93.3 9.2

Asian

9,380 9,698 96.6 9,320 91.4 900.0 96.1 90.0 9.9

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(2)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

93,573 9,498 94.8 9,782 91.8 900.0 95.1 99.0 9.9

Non-Hispanic or Latino

919,751 96,485 90.5 91,931 96.7 900.0 95.8 91.8 92.5

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

9,400 984 9.8 924 9.0 s s s s

High school graduates, no college

91,623 9,682 91.6 9,879 9.1 900.0 96.9 98.9 9.3

Some college or associate degree

98,627 9,738 93.5 9,495 99.2 900.0 91.3 96.9 91.8

Bachelor's degree and higher

94,633 97,168 99.7 94,453 94.8 900.0 92.9 94.4 92.7

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

97,629 95,297 92.1 93,586 98.5 900.0 97.6 91.0 91.4

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

9,916 9,052 90.8 9,820 98.4 900.0 90.3 96.8 92.9

Parent of a child under 13 years

97,713 92,246 92.5 90,766 98.5 900.0 99.5 99.5 91.0

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

95,695 94,686 95.8 91,127 92.1 900.0 94.5 93.2 92.3

Occupation

Management, business, and financial operations

91,697 92,513 97.7 90,699 99.3 900.0 96.3 91.4 92.3

Professional and related

97,333 95,657 91.9 94,174 98.0 900.0 92.1 95.1 92.8

Services

93,784 9,885 9.9 9,504 9.3 s s s s

Sales and related

92,351 9,547 98.7 9,275 96.5 900.0 99.2 97.1 93.7

Office and administrative support

99,798 9,089 95.7 9,054 90.5 900.0 91.7 92.7 9.6

Farming, fishing, and forestry

s s s s s s s s s

Construction and extraction

9,847 975 9.4 909 9.6 s s s s

Installation, maintenance, and repair

9,939 958 9.6 925 9.7 s s s s

Production

9,001 917 9.5 993 9.3 s s s s

Transportation and material moving

9,227 904 9.7 960 9.2 s s s s

Industry

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

s s s s s s s s s

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

s s s s s s s s s

Construction

9,697 993 93.3 979 90.1 s s s s

Manufacturing

96,528 9,076 90.7 9,331 96.2 900.0 91.0 99.1 9.9

Wholesale and retail trade

99,014 9,714 94.3 9,533 93.3 900.0 98.7 94.1 97.2

Transportation and utilities

9,018 980 94.0 911 93.0 s s s s

Information

9,666 9,336 90.1 9,178 94.2 s s s s

Financial activities

90,616 9,813 94.8 9,907 96.2 900.0 97.7 90.3 92.1

Professional and business services

95,942 9,058 90.5 9,156 94.9 900.0 97.4 92.2 90.4

Education and health services

96,775 9,683 96.3 9,690 93.6 900.0 91.7 92.7 95.6

Leisure and hospitality

93,226 9,192 9.0 924 9.0 s s s s

Other services

9,704 9,692 99.7 9,501 96.3 s s s s

Public administration

9,886 9,189 91.8 9,555 92.6 s s s s

Class of worker

Private sector

918,698 93,310 98.1 98,996 94.4 900.0 99.8 90.2 90.0

Private, for profit

906,193 99,114 97.4 95,210 93.7 900.0 91.2 98.4 90.4

Private, not for profit

92,505 9,196 93.6 9,786 90.3 900.0 90.7 91.8 9.5

Public sector

94,627 9,673 97.1 9,717 93.2 900.0 94.9 93.4 91.7

Federal government

9,415 9,473 93.4 9,060 94.0 s s s s

State government

9,272 9,370 90.7 9,086 97.3 900.0 99.9 93.8 96.3

Local government

91,940 9,830 95.3 9,572 93.2 900.0 98.3 96.2 95.4

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(3)

Full-time workers

903,981 92,418 91.2 97,924 96.9 900.0 93.7 93.0 93.3

Part-time workers

96,249 9,015 95.3 9,496 93.3 900.0 93.6 92.9 9.4

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers
(single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

94,145 9,212 9.2 9,731 9.2 s s s s

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

96,817 9,548 97.0 9,718 93.9 900.0 97.2 97.0 9.8

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

96,532 9,426 95.5 9,721 99.1 900.0 91.6 93.2 95.1

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

96,486 96,232 91.3 94,754 95.7 900.0 93.6 90.9 95.5

Work schedule flexibility(4)

Had flexible schedule

90,286 92,392 90.3 98,346 95.3 900.0 99.7 97.0 93.3

Did not have flexible schedule

93,038 9,591 92.0 9,367 90.1 900.0 97.9 96.3 9.8

(1) Estimates for race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to the totals because data are not presented for all races.
(2) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(3) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
(4) Workers with flexible schedules were able to vary or change the times they began and stopped working.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Table 2. Main reason workers worked at home by selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic Total,
workers who
did work at
home (in
thousands)
Percent distribution by main reason for working at home
Total Finish or
catch up
on work
Job
requires
working at
home
Coordinate
work schedule
with personal
or family
needs
Reduce
commuting
time or
expense
Personal
preference
Weather Other

Age

Total, 15 years and over

94,713 900.0 92.4 97.5 92.5 9.0 93.6 9.5 9.6

15 to 24 years

9,661 s s s s s s s s

25 to 34 years

9,324 900.0 90.9 92.3 95.0 9.3 97.3 9.9 9.3

35 to 44 years

9,820 900.0 93.3 97.3 96.6 9.1 91.6 9.6 9.6

45 to 54 years

9,037 900.0 96.2 98.4 90.2 90.5 97.6 9.5 9.7

55 to 64 years

9,005 900.0 90.6 98.4 98.9 90.1 95.4 9.0 9.6

65 years and over

9,866 900.0 92.4 96.9 9.7 9.9 98.1 9.5 9.5

Sex

Men

98,607 900.0 90.3 97.6 99.8 9.0 97.4 9.3 9.5

Women

96,106 900.0 94.7 97.4 95.6 9.0 99.1 9.7 9.5

Race(1)

White

98,574 900.0 92.9 97.5 91.8 9.0 94.0 9.6 9.1

Black or African American

9,183 900.0 94.3 93.4 96.2 9.9 98.2 9.0 9.0

Asian

9,320 900.0 9.4 91.3 90.9 93.9 92.8 z 9.7

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(2)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

9,782 900.0 90.9 99.4 98.7 9.2 97.1 9.9 9.7

Non-Hispanic or Latino

91,931 900.0 91.6 97.3 92.9 9.6 93.2 9.7 9.6

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

924 s s s s s s s s

High school graduates, no college

9,879 900.0 90.1 98.2 92.5 9.2 95.0 9.8 9.4

Some college or associate degree

9,495 900.0 98.0 97.7 97.4 9.2 90.1 9.9 9.5

Bachelor's degree and higher

94,453 900.0 94.2 96.6 90.1 9.7 94.7 9.5 9.2

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

93,586 900.0 94.2 97.1 98.9 9.5 97.8 9.7 9.7

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

9,820 900.0 90.5 90.4 98.5 9.2 90.1 9.4 z

Parent of a child under 13 years

90,766 900.0 92.6 96.3 91.7 9.6 97.2 9.5 9.1

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

91,127 900.0 91.1 97.7 98.4 9.3 97.3 9.7 9.5

Occupation

Management, business, and financial operations

90,699 900.0 92.6 97.4 96.1 90.1 90.6 9.0 9.3

Professional and related

94,174 900.0 96.3 91.2 90.9 90.3 97.0 9.6 9.7

Services

9,504 s s s s s s s s

Sales and related

9,275 900.0 99.3 91.9 9.2 90.5 92.7 9.6 9.9

Office and administrative support

9,054 900.0 92.0 91.0 94.9 9.1 99.3 9.8 9.8

Farming, fishing, and forestry

s s s s s s s s s

Construction and extraction

909 s s s s s s s s

Installation, maintenance, and repair

925 s s s s s s s s

Production

993 s s s s s s s s

Transportation and material moving

960 s s s s s s s s

Industry

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

s s s s s s s s s

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

s s s s s s s s s

Construction

979 s s s s s s s s

Manufacturing

9,331 900.0 96.6 98.4 91.1 9.2 90.5 9.6 9.5

Wholesale and retail trade

9,533 900.0 95.5 92.2 91.5 90.5 97.0 9.3 9.0

Transportation and utilities

911 s s s s s s s s

Information

9,178 s s s s s s s s

Financial activities

9,907 900.0 92.9 99.5 93.3 91.8 96.8 9.8 z

Professional and business services

9,156 900.0 96.6 93.4 96.9 91.3 97.7 9.4 9.7

Education and health services

9,690 900.0 94.2 95.1 95.5 9.6 96.5 9.1 9.0

Leisure and hospitality

924 s s s s s s s s

Other services

9,501 s s s s s s s s

Public administration

9,555 s s s s s s s s

Class of worker

Private sector

98,996 900.0 90.8 98.8 94.3 9.3 92.7 9.6 9.5

Private, for profit

95,210 900.0 99.1 98.9 95.7 9.8 92.2 9.7 9.6

Private, not for profit

9,786 900.0 92.0 97.8 95.0 9.9 96.5 9.8 9.0

Public sector

9,717 900.0 90.4 91.0 93.5 92.2 97.8 9.0 9.1

Federal government

9,060 s s s s s s s s

State government

9,086 900.0 99.2 9.6 94.6 9.2 90.4 9.2 9.8

Local government

9,572 900.0 95.3 9.5 93.9 93.3 92.0 9.6 9.3

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(3)

Full-time workers

97,924 900.0 93.6 96.6 92.6 9.1 92.9 9.4 9.7

Part-time workers

9,496 900.0 94.4 97.2 94.0 9.5 94.1 9.3 9.5

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary
workers (single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

9,731 s s s s s s s s

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

9,718 900.0 90.3 97.8 95.1 9.5 94.6 9.7 9.0

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

9,721 900.0 96.1 96.0 94.0 9.9 90.4 9.0 9.6

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

94,754 900.0 90.5 94.2 93.1 92.2 96.9 9.0 9.1

Work schedule flexibility(4)

Had flexible schedule

98,346 900.0 98.7 98.1 94.6 9.6 95.1 9.8 9.1

Did not have flexible schedule

9,367 900.0 98.5 94.9 93.2 9.2 96.7 9.8 9.7

(1) Estimates for race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to the total because data are not presented for all races.
(2) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(3) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
(4) Workers with flexible schedules were able to vary or change the times they began and stopped working.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
z - Estimate is approximately zero.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Table 3. Workers who worked at home and how often they worked exclusively at home by selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic Total
workers
(in thou-
sands)
Workers who did work at home
Total (in
thou-
sands)
Percent of
total
workers
Workers with days they worked exclusively at home(1)
Total (in
thou-
sands)
Percent
of total
workers
Percent distribution by how often they worked exclusively at home(1)
Total Less
than
once per
month
Once a
month
Every 2
weeks
At least 1
day per
week
1 to 2
days per
week
3 to 4
days per
week
5 or more
days per
week

Age

Total, 15 years and over

943,325 94,713 94.2 90,198 94.1 900.0 97.5 93.7 93.3 9.7 96.3 93.7 95.7

15 to 24 years

91,040 9,661 9.9 9,042 9.0 s s s s s s s s

25 to 34 years

92,522 9,324 92.5 9,633 94.2 900.0 92.9 9.4 94.9 92.7 95.9 90.0 94.1

35 to 44 years

90,382 9,820 92.3 9,873 99.3 900.0 90.8 99.2 94.3 9.3 92.6 90.3 93.5

45 to 54 years

99,130 9,037 97.6 9,539 95.6 900.0 98.2 93.3 91.2 9.2 95.8 91.6 90.8

55 to 64 years

92,753 9,005 96.4 9,054 93.4 900.0 90.9 9.4 98.3 9.6 90.5 97.1 97.0

65 years and over

9,497 9,866 94.9 9,056 94.1 s s s s s s s s

Sex

Men

95,594 98,607 94.6 91,084 94.7 900.0 98.0 95.5 93.6 90.1 94.4 95.3 93.0

Women

97,730 96,106 93.8 9,114 93.5 900.0 97.0 91.6 93.0 9.1 98.6 91.7 99.0

Race(2)

White

914,497 98,574 95.0 96,415 94.3 900.0 98.3 93.6 92.9 9.2 96.0 94.5 95.5

Black or African American

98,312 9,183 97.4 9,040 91.1 900.0 93.9 90.4 95.6 90.7 95.7 9.0 90.9

Asian

9,380 9,320 91.4 9,445 99.6 s s s s s s s s

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(3)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

93,573 9,782 91.8 9,420 9.0 s s s s s s s s

Non-Hispanic or Latino

919,751 91,931 96.7 98,777 95.7 900.0 97.9 94.0 93.3 9.3 96.7 93.3 95.5

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

9,400 924 9.0 942 9.9 s s s s s s s s

High school graduates, no college

91,623 9,879 9.1 9,225 9.9 s s s s s s s s

Some college or associate degree

98,627 9,495 99.2 9,947 90.3 900.0 95.7 93.7 90.8 92.8 97.2 92.8 97.0

Bachelor's degree and higher

94,633 94,453 94.8 94,841 97.2 900.0 99.3 94.0 93.2 9.9 97.3 92.7 93.7

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

97,629 93,586 98.5 9,070 96.9 900.0 98.7 96.1 92.0 91.6 93.5 91.5 96.6

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

9,916 9,820 98.4 9,905 99.2 900.0 97.2 95.2 9.3 90.4 94.3 91.7 91.9

Parent of a child under 13 years

97,713 90,766 98.5 9,164 96.3 900.0 99.2 96.4 92.9 91.9 93.3 91.4 95.0

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

95,695 91,127 92.1 92,128 92.7 900.0 96.8 92.1 94.2 9.4 98.2 95.2 95.2

Occupation

Management, business, and financial operations

91,697 90,699 99.3 9,597 90.4 900.0 91.6 96.3 91.4 9.8 99.1 9.7 96.1

Professional and related

97,333 94,174 98.0 9,149 91.8 900.0 96.9 96.0 92.4 92.5 94.4 93.5 94.4

Services

93,784 9,504 9.3 932 9.5 s s s s s s s s

Sales and related

92,351 9,275 96.5 9,346 99.0 900.0 9.3 9.5 91.7 9.1 98.8 97.3 91.4

Office and administrative support

99,798 9,054 90.5 9,911 9.7 s s s s s s s s

Farming, fishing, and forestry

s s s s s s s s s s s s s

Construction and extraction

9,847 909 9.6 98 9.8 s s s s s s s s

Installation, maintenance, and repair

9,939 925 9.7 91 9.3 s s s s s s s s

Production

9,001 993 9.3 923 9.4 s s s s s s s s

Transportation and material moving

9,227 960 9.2 967 9.0 s s s s s s s s

Industry

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

s s s s s s s s s s s s s

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

s s s s s s s s s s s s s

Construction

9,697 979 90.1 916 9.2 s s s s s s s s

Manufacturing

96,528 9,331 96.2 9,426 94.7 900.0 96.6 90.6 92.2 91.7 91.6 9.6 90.8

Wholesale and retail trade

99,014 9,533 93.3 9,422 9.5 s s s s s s s s

Transportation and utilities

9,018 911 93.0 975 9.2 s s s s s s s s

Information

9,666 9,178 94.2 912 96.7 s s s s s s s s

Financial activities

90,616 9,907 96.2 9,394 92.0 900.0 92.8 9.1 92.2 9.7 97.9 99.0 96.3

Professional and business services

95,942 9,156 94.9 9,587 98.8 900.0 99.5 94.3 93.8 91.1 92.6 92.8 95.9

Education and health services

96,775 9,690 93.6 9,372 91.9 900.0 92.8 94.2 92.4 91.3 95.6 96.2 97.5

Leisure and hospitality

93,226 924 9.0 952 9.2 s s s s s s s s

Other services

9,704 9,501 96.3 996 94.0 s s s s s s s s

Public administration

9,886 9,555 92.6 990 94.4 s s s s s s s s

Class of worker

Private sector

918,698 98,996 94.4 97,010 94.3 900.0 97.4 93.4 93.6 9.7 96.1 93.6 97.2

Private, for profit

906,193 95,210 93.7 95,093 94.2 900.0 98.4 93.0 93.9 9.2 95.9 92.9 96.7

Private, not for profit

92,505 9,786 90.3 9,917 95.3 900.0 9.4 96.5 91.7 9.8 97.6 99.0 90.9

Public sector

94,627 9,717 93.2 9,188 92.9 900.0 98.4 95.6 91.6 94.6 97.4 94.3 9.1

Federal government

9,415 9,060 94.0 936 96.7 s s s s s s s s

State government

9,272 9,086 97.3 9,922 93.2 s s s s s s s s

Local government

91,940 9,572 93.2 929 9.4 s s s s s s s s

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(4)

Full-time workers

903,981 97,924 96.9 96,109 95.5 900.0 99.3 95.5 95.0 9.9 95.2 90.9 94.2

Part-time workers

96,249 9,496 93.3 9,088 9.0 900.0 90.0 9.0 9.7 9.9 95.3 97.2 98.8

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary
workers (single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

94,145 9,731 9.2 9,117 9.6 s s s s s s s s

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

96,817 9,718 93.9 9,570 9.9 s s s s s s s s

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

96,532 9,721 99.1 9,323 96.3 900.0 97.0 99.1 90.1 9.9 91.6 9.4 9.9

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

96,486 94,754 95.7 9,099 94.4 900.0 96.8 96.1 93.0 91.9 98.1 92.0 92.1

Work schedule flexibility(5)

Had flexible schedule

90,286 98,346 95.3 97,705 92.1 900.0 96.0 93.8 94.4 90.0 96.8 94.2 95.0

Did not have flexible schedule

93,038 9,367 90.1 9,492 9.0 900.0 98.7 93.4 9.8 9.4 92.9 90.3 91.4

(1) Includes workers who performed all of their work at home, regardless of how long they worked.
(2) Estimates for race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to the totals because data are not presented for all races.
(3) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(4) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
(5) Workers with flexible schedules were able to vary or change the times they began and stopped working.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Table 4. Workers with flexible schedules, how often they could vary their schedules, and presence of a formal arrangement, by selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic Total
workers
(in thou-
sands)
Workers with flexible schedules(1)
Total (in
thou-
sands)
Percent of
total
workers
Percent distribution by how often
workers could vary their schedules
With formal flexible schedules
Total Fre-
quently
Occasion-
ally
Rarely Total (in
thou-
sands)
Percent of
total
workers
Percent of
all workers
with flexible
schedules

Age

Total, 15 years and over

943,325 90,286 96.0 900.0 93.1 98.0 98.9 92,985 96.0 98.6

15 to 24 years

91,040 93,168 92.6 900.0 97.3 94.9 97.8 s 91.3 94.1

25 to 34 years

92,522 98,602 97.2 900.0 90.3 97.7 92.0 9,291 96.3 98.4

35 to 44 years

90,382 96,651 94.8 900.0 98.1 97.5 94.4 9,581 95.1 97.5

45 to 54 years

99,130 95,096 91.8 900.0 94.0 96.2 99.8 9,153 94.3 97.5

55 to 64 years

92,753 91,826 92.0 900.0 93.4 95.6 91.0 9,269 94.4 97.6

65 years and over

9,497 9,944 95.9 900.0 99.1 93.5 97.4 s 96.0 94.3

Sex

Men

95,594 93,538 97.6 900.0 95.5 97.3 97.3 91,204 94.8 95.7

Women

97,730 96,748 94.3 900.0 90.4 98.8 90.8 91,781 97.4 92.1

Race(2)

White

914,497 94,465 96.3 900.0 94.0 98.5 97.5 97,111 94.9 96.5

Black or African American

98,312 9,839 93.7 900.0 95.6 96.5 97.9 9,936 91.5 90.0

Asian

9,380 9,052 94.9 900.0 90.5 95.5 94.1 s 97.9 92.6

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(3)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

93,573 91,681 99.6 900.0 91.1 92.1 96.7 9,775 96.0 92.3

Non-Hispanic or Latino

919,751 98,605 97.3 900.0 95.2 97.3 97.6 99,209 96.0 98.0

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

9,400 9,345 91.7 900.0 91.8 96.0 92.3 s 91.6 96.6

High school graduates, no college

91,623 95,062 97.6 900.0 91.9 96.0 92.1 9,891 92.3 95.8

Some college or associate degree

98,627 95,256 93.3 900.0 99.7 92.3 98.0 9,065 94.2 96.6

Bachelor's degree and higher

94,633 94,455 93.1 900.0 92.6 93.8 93.7 9,683 97.7 98.1

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

97,629 96,062 94.7 900.0 92.6 90.0 97.4 9,758 94.2 95.9

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

9,916 9,044 90.9 900.0 90.3 97.6 92.1 s 94.2 97.8

Parent of a child under 13 years

97,713 91,018 95.7 900.0 93.2 98.2 98.6 9,354 94.2 95.5

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

95,695 94,224 96.7 900.0 93.4 97.0 99.6 96,227 97.0 99.9

Occupation

Management, business, and financial operations

91,697 96,019 93.8 900.0 97.6 90.1 92.4 9,233 99.5 96.4

Professional and related

97,333 90,624 95.2 900.0 93.8 90.4 95.8 9,475 97.3 91.4

Services

93,784 92,713 93.5 900.0 93.7 94.3 92.0 9,598 95.1 98.3

Sales and related

92,351 9,386 97.9 900.0 98.0 96.1 95.9 9,689 91.8 92.1

Office and administrative support

99,798 91,334 97.2 900.0 92.7 90.8 96.5 9,063 95.5 97.0

Farming, fishing, and forestry

s s s s s s s s s s

Construction and extraction

9,847 s 95.8 s s s s s 9.8 s

Installation, maintenance, and repair

9,939 s 90.8 s s s s s 9.5 s

Production

9,001 9,997 93.3 900.0 94.6 90.3 95.2 s 9.6 92.9

Transportation and material moving

9,227 9,129 90.2 900.0 93.3 94.1 92.6 s 97.5 94.9

Industry

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

s s s s s s s s s s

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

s s s s s s s s s s

Construction

9,697 9,864 92.8 900.0 90.9 97.0 92.1 s 9.1 94.3

Manufacturing

96,528 9,539 91.7 900.0 98.1 94.3 97.6 9,454 94.8 98.7

Wholesale and retail trade

99,014 92,177 94.0 900.0 90.3 99.2 90.5 9,593 98.9 99.5

Transportation and utilities

9,018 9,413 98.6 900.0 95.3 97.8 96.9 s 99.8 90.7

Information

9,666 s 98.8 s s s s s 92.9 s

Financial activities

90,616 9,242 98.2 900.0 98.6 95.8 95.6 s 96.1 93.5

Professional and business services

95,942 90,649 96.8 900.0 95.8 98.4 95.7 9,676 96.8 95.1

Education and health services

96,775 96,793 95.7 900.0 92.4 96.6 91.0 9,064 93.8 90.2

Leisure and hospitality

93,226 9,455 93.9 900.0 91.9 96.5 91.6 s 96.6 95.9

Other services

9,704 9,672 94.4 900.0 98.7 95.3 96.0 s 95.6 94.2

Public administration

9,886 9,971 97.7 900.0 93.3 93.4 93.3 9,097 90.5 92.8

Class of worker

Private sector

918,698 99,984 99.0 900.0 92.8 98.7 98.4 98,484 95.6 96.4

Private, for profit

906,193 93,354 99.7 900.0 92.5 98.9 98.6 96,847 95.9 96.6

Private, not for profit

92,505 9,630 93.0 900.0 96.0 97.3 96.7 s 93.1 94.7

Public sector

94,627 90,302 91.8 900.0 95.3 92.8 91.9 9,500 98.3 93.7

Federal government

9,415 9,495 96.5 900.0 94.2 97.0 98.8 s 93.1 98.6

State government

9,272 9,030 98.7 900.0 97.2 90.0 92.8 s 90.7 92.6

Local government

91,940 9,777 91.6 900.0 93.2 99.7 97.0 s 91.1 95.0

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(4)

Full-time workers

903,981 95,324 93.2 900.0 92.4 98.3 99.4 95,751 95.1 98.5

Part-time workers

96,249 97,347 96.1 900.0 92.2 99.1 98.7 9,279 90.1 90.4

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary
workers (single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

94,145 90,177 92.1 900.0 98.2 98.6 93.2 9,579 94.8 95.2

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

96,817 92,260 95.7 900.0 92.7 93.6 93.8 9,410 92.7 97.8

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

96,532 94,509 94.7 900.0 91.9 92.3 95.8 9,749 94.1 95.8

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

96,486 98,377 99.4 900.0 97.1 91.4 91.6 9,012 98.9 97.3

Workplace flexibility(5)

Could work at home

99,983 92,392 91.0 900.0 98.5 90.0 91.4 9,718 91.8 96.9

Could not work at home

903,080 97,712 96.3 900.0 92.5 93.4 94.0 94,267 93.8 99.9

(1) Workers with flexible schedules were able to vary or change the times they began and stopped working.
(2) Estimates for race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to the totals because data are not presented for all races.
(3) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(4) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
(5) The subcategories do not sum to the totals because a small number of workers did not provide this information.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Table 5. How far in advance workers knew their work schedules by selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic Total workers
(in thousands)
Percent distribution by how far in advance workers knew their work schedules
Total Less than 1 week 1 to 2 weeks 2 to 4 weeks 4 weeks or more

Age

Total, 15 years and over

943,325 900.0 90.6 96.0 9.5 93.8

15 to 24 years

91,040 900.0 98.2 97.0 93.9 90.9

25 to 34 years

92,522 900.0 97.9 97.2 9.7 95.2

35 to 44 years

90,382 900.0 99.4 93.0 9.4 99.2

45 to 54 years

99,130 900.0 99.9 91.4 9.7 91.0

55 to 64 years

92,753 900.0 90.4 93.3 9.5 97.8

65 years and over

9,497 900.0 90.1 99.3 91.1 99.5

Sex

Men

95,594 900.0 96.0 97.5 9.5 98.1

Women

97,730 900.0 94.7 94.4 90.7 90.1

Race(1)

White

914,497 900.0 90.3 95.7 9.2 94.8

Black or African American

98,312 900.0 94.8 95.9 90.6 98.7

Asian

9,380 900.0 92.7 92.5 91.9 92.8

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(2)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

93,573 900.0 98.0 98.2 9.3 97.5

Non-Hispanic or Latino

919,751 900.0 99.2 95.6 90.2 95.0

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

9,400 900.0 91.9 97.3 9.1 94.7

High school graduates, no college

91,623 900.0 93.7 96.2 9.8 91.3

Some college or associate degree

98,627 900.0 90.6 93.9 9.9 96.5

Bachelor's degree and higher

94,633 900.0 94.4 92.7 9.1 93.8

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

97,629 900.0 99.2 93.6 9.4 98.8

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

9,916 900.0 97.2 9.6 9.1 94.1

Parent of a child under 13 years

97,713 900.0 99.8 94.7 9.2 97.4

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

95,695 900.0 91.3 97.2 90.1 91.3

Occupation

Management, business, and financial operations

91,697 900.0 98.4 94.0 9.5 98.1

Professional and related

97,333 900.0 92.3 92.1 9.2 97.4

Services

93,784 900.0 90.2 92.8 9.8 97.2

Sales and related

92,351 900.0 91.0 97.2 93.3 98.6

Office and administrative support

99,798 900.0 91.8 94.6 9.4 94.1

Farming, fishing, and forestry

s s s s s s

Construction and extraction

9,847 900.0 90.7 94.7 9.6 93.0

Installation, maintenance, and repair

9,939 900.0 99.4 9.3 9.4 95.9

Production

9,001 900.0 99.9 93.7 9.2 92.2

Transportation and material moving

9,227 900.0 98.2 95.0 9.8 98.0

Industry

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

s s s s s s

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

s s s s s s

Construction

9,697 900.0 93.8 92.9 9.4 90.9

Manufacturing

96,528 900.0 91.7 92.8 9.7 98.7

Wholesale and retail trade

99,014 900.0 97.9 94.8 91.0 96.3

Transportation and utilities

9,018 900.0 91.0 93.0 9.4 90.5

Information

9,666 900.0 94.9 90.1 9.6 95.4

Financial activities

90,616 900.0 94.8 96.2 9.8 90.2

Professional and business services

95,942 900.0 94.8 93.4 9.3 94.4

Education and health services

96,775 900.0 91.4 91.2 9.4 90.0

Leisure and hospitality

93,226 900.0 92.9 99.0 93.6 94.5

Other services

9,704 900.0 99.1 99.4 9.0 92.5

Public administration

9,886 900.0 95.8 9.4 9.3 95.4

Class of worker

Private sector

918,698 900.0 92.3 97.4 90.3 90.0

Private, for profit

906,193 900.0 93.8 97.9 90.6 97.6

Private, not for profit

92,505 900.0 9.9 93.5 9.8 99.8

Public sector

94,627 900.0 92.8 9.3 9.8 92.1

Federal government

9,415 900.0 93.0 93.4 9.7 95.9

State government

9,272 900.0 95.2 9.8 9.9 92.1

Local government

91,940 900.0 91.1 9.4 9.1 94.4

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(3)

Full-time workers

903,981 900.0 99.1 93.7 9.3 98.9

Part-time workers

96,249 900.0 96.1 95.9 93.3 94.7

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers
(single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

94,145 900.0 92.3 97.6 90.6 99.6

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

96,817 900.0 96.8 91.7 9.9 93.6

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

96,532 900.0 98.9 92.0 9.1 92.0

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

96,486 900.0 98.7 93.9 9.7 99.7

Work schedule flexibility(4)

Had flexible schedule

90,286 900.0 93.9 90.4 91.3 94.5

Did not have flexible schedule

93,038 900.0 96.5 90.6 9.3 95.6

Worker had input into schedule

9,979 900.0 99.2 90.7 91.0 99.2

Employer decided schedule

92,284 900.0 96.1 90.5 9.6 96.9

Workplace flexibility(5)

Could work at home

99,983 900.0 99.9 94.7 9.6 97.9

Could not work at home

903,080 900.0 91.0 96.5 90.3 92.3

(1) Estimates for race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to the total because data are not presented for all races.
(2) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(3) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
(4) Workers with flexible schedules were able to vary or change the times they began and stopped working. Estimates for workers who did not have flexible schedules do not sum to the total because data are not presented for all response options.
(5) The subcategories do not sum to the total because a small number of workers did not provide this information.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Table 6. Workers without flexible work schedules whose employers decided their schedules, and how far in advance they knew their schedules, by selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic Total, workers
without flexible
schedules(1) (in
thousands)
Workers
without flexible
work schedules(1)
as a percent of
total workers
Workers without flexible work schedules(1) whose employers decided their schedules
Total
(in
thousands)
Percent of
total
workers
Percent distribution by how far in advance workers knew their work
schedules
Total Less than 1
week
1 to 2 weeks 2 to 4 weeks 4 weeks or
more

Age

Total, 15 years and over

93,038 94.0 92,284 96.5 900.0 96.1 90.5 9.6 96.9

15 to 24 years

9,872 97.4 9,137 99.2 900.0 97.4 91.0 94.6 97.0

25 to 34 years

93,920 92.8 91,932 96.7 900.0 93.8 9.8 9.6 91.8

35 to 44 years

93,731 95.2 91,100 96.5 900.0 95.0 9.2 9.5 99.3

45 to 54 years

94,034 98.2 92,061 91.4 900.0 96.3 9.7 9.8 90.2

55 to 64 years

90,927 98.0 9,110 90.0 900.0 99.0 9.6 9.1 96.2

65 years and over

9,553 94.1 9,943 95.9 900.0 97.2 9.4 9.0 97.4

Sex

Men

92,056 92.4 96,775 95.4 900.0 91.8 93.9 9.1 98.3

Women

90,982 95.7 95,509 97.7 900.0 90.1 9.9 9.1 95.8

Race(2)

White

90,033 93.7 91,639 96.4 900.0 95.5 90.0 9.4 98.1

Black or African American

9,473 96.3 9,694 96.6 900.0 90.4 91.1 9.7 90.8

Asian

9,328 95.1 9,769 97.5 900.0 9.6 93.8 9.7 99.9

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(3)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

91,892 90.4 90,091 92.8 900.0 96.6 91.2 9.8 99.4

Non-Hispanic or Latino

91,146 92.7 92,192 95.2 900.0 93.6 90.3 9.5 98.6

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

9,055 98.3 9,318 98.4 900.0 95.6 90.8 9.9 90.7

High school graduates, no college

96,562 92.4 94,143 94.7 900.0 91.7 92.8 9.9 99.6

Some college or associate degree

93,371 96.7 91,252 99.3 900.0 96.2 9.3 9.7 97.8

Bachelor's degree and higher

90,178 96.9 96,434 90.1 900.0 9.6 9.2 9.1 94.1

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

91,567 95.3 98,082 98.0 900.0 93.7 9.6 9.2 92.5

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

9,872 99.1 9,152 91.9 900.0 93.4 9.0 9.6 95.0

Parent of a child under 13 years

96,695 94.3 93,931 96.9 900.0 93.8 9.9 9.5 91.8

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

91,471 93.3 94,202 95.7 900.0 97.3 91.5 9.3 93.9

Occupation

Management, business, and financial operations

9,678 96.2 9,946 98.2 900.0 9.0 9.2 9.1 96.7

Professional and related

96,709 94.8 94,144 97.9 900.0 9.9 9.8 9.4 91.8

Services

91,071 96.5 9,891 97.4 900.0 99.8 96.3 90.6 93.3

Sales and related

9,965 92.1 9,120 95.3 900.0 93.4 92.6 93.2 90.8

Office and administrative support

9,465 92.8 9,149 96.1 900.0 90.5 9.3 90.2 92.0

Farming, fishing, and forestry

s s s s s s s s s

Construction and extraction

9,754 94.2 9,044 92.1 900.0 94.1 90.5 9.4 94.0

Installation, maintenance, and repair

9,330 99.2 9,934 99.1 s s s s s

Production

9,004 96.7 9,691 93.2 900.0 94.9 92.4 9.1 98.6

Transportation and material moving

9,099 99.8 9,575 93.5 900.0 96.5 90.1 9.6 91.7

Industry

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

s s s s s s s s s

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

s s s s s s s s s

Construction

9,834 97.2 9,055 95.6 900.0 97.8 90.0 9.4 90.7

Manufacturing

9,989 98.3 9,073 92.8 900.0 99.6 90.4 9.7 97.2

Wholesale and retail trade

9,837 96.0 9,764 90.3 900.0 94.3 95.2 93.3 97.2

Transportation and utilities

9,604 91.4 9,925 91.7 900.0 97.9 93.9 9.0 95.2

Information

9,099 91.2 938 97.7 s s s s s

Financial activities

9,374 91.8 9,601 94.5 900.0 9.0 9.5 9.6 98.8

Professional and business services

9,293 93.2 9,634 99.1 900.0 92.4 9.1 9.1 91.5

Education and health services

99,982 94.3 97,381 97.3 900.0 9.8 9.9 9.0 91.3

Leisure and hospitality

9,771 96.1 9,313 95.0 900.0 97.3 99.2 90.1 93.4

Other services

9,031 95.6 9,409 94.7 s s s s s

Public administration

9,916 92.3 9,270 93.0 900.0 91.0 9.1 9.2 91.6

Class of worker

Private sector

98,714 91.0 90,040 93.7 900.0 98.6 92.1 9.9 92.4

Private, for profit

92,839 90.3 95,295 93.2 900.0 99.9 92.4 9.4 90.2

Private, not for profit

9,875 97.0 9,745 97.9 900.0 9.0 9.5 9.0 98.5

Public sector

94,325 98.2 92,244 99.7 900.0 9.9 9.1 9.5 91.5

Federal government

9,920 93.5 9,349 90.6 s s s s s

State government

9,242 91.3 9,513 92.5 900.0 9.2 9.4 9.4 93.0

Local government

9,163 98.4 9,382 91.8 900.0 9.9 9.4 9.0 92.7

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(4)

Full-time workers

98,657 96.8 90,579 99.0 900.0 95.1 9.6 9.4 99.9

Part-time workers

9,902 93.9 9,130 97.2 900.0 91.7 96.7 93.9 97.7

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary
workers (single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

93,968 97.9 91,933 99.4 900.0 97.5 94.3 9.6 93.5

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

94,557 94.3 92,654 97.2 900.0 90.8 9.8 9.5 92.9

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

92,023 95.3 9,707 96.6 900.0 98.2 9.8 9.3 90.8

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

9,109 90.6 9,285 93.7 900.0 94.5 9.6 9.1 94.8

Workplace flexibility(5)

Could work at home

9,591 99.0 9,184 93.0 900.0 9.6 9.8 9.3 94.3

Could not work at home

95,368 93.7 97,030 95.6 900.0 97.0 91.1 9.9 94.9

(1) Workers without flexible schedules were not able to vary or change the times they began and stopped working.
(2) Estimates for race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to the total because data are not presented for all races.
(3) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(4) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
(5) The subcategories do not sum to the total because a small number of workers did not provide this information.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Table 7. Workers by shift usually worked and selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic Total
workers (in
thousands)
Percent
working
regular
daytime
schedule
Percent working a non-daytime schedule, by shift
Total Evening Night Rotating Irregular Split shift Other

Age

Total, 15 years and over

943,325 93.5 96.5 9.4 9.1 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.2

15 to 24 years

91,040 98.9 91.1 93.5 9.0 9.6 9.8 9.5 9.7

25 to 34 years

92,522 94.6 95.4 9.0 9.6 9.3 9.3 9.4 9.8

35 to 44 years

90,382 96.7 93.3 9.1 9.4 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.1

45 to 54 years

99,130 97.1 92.9 9.6 9.4 9.8 9.7 9.3 9.1

55 to 64 years

92,753 96.2 93.8 9.5 9.2 9.2 9.6 9.4 9.0

65 years and over

9,497 94.8 95.2 9.3 9.1 9.3 9.5 9.8 9.3

Sex

Men

95,594 92.2 97.8 9.3 9.8 9.6 9.9 9.0 9.2

Women

97,730 94.9 95.1 9.3 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.5 9.1

Race(1)

White

914,497 95.3 94.7 9.8 9.6 9.3 9.2 9.8 9.9

Black or African American

98,312 92.6 97.4 9.1 9.1 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.1

Asian

9,380 94.7 95.3 9.7 9.1 9.2 9.5 9.3 9.4

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(2)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

93,573 92.8 97.2 9.5 9.8 9.7 9.5 9.1 9.6

Non-Hispanic or Latino

919,751 93.7 96.3 9.7 9.8 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.1

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

9,400 92.4 97.6 9.4 9.8 9.8 9.2 9.3 9.1

High school graduates, no college

91,623 90.9 99.1 9.6 9.6 9.2 9.4 9.3 9.0

Some college or associate degree

98,627 91.7 98.3 9.2 9.2 9.9 9.8 9.8 9.5

Bachelor's degree and higher

94,633 91.8 9.2 9.5 9.8 9.3 9.1 9.3 9.3

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

97,629 96.4 93.6 9.8 9.1 9.1 9.4 9.0 9.2

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

9,916 99.4 90.6 9.2 9.0 9.0 9.5 9.6 9.3

Parent of a child under 13 years

97,713 95.6 94.4 9.3 9.4 9.2 9.3 9.9 9.4

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

95,695 92.1 97.9 9.1 9.7 9.7 9.7 9.6 9.2

Occupation

Management, business, and financial operations

91,697 91.8 9.2 9.2 9.9 9.8 9.0 9.7 9.5

Professional and related

97,333 99.9 90.1 9.2 9.2 9.0 9.8 9.3 9.6

Services

93,784 96.5 93.5 94.1 9.8 9.2 9.5 9.2 9.7

Sales and related

92,351 95.5 94.5 90.2 9.3 9.4 9.7 9.8 9.1

Office and administrative support

99,798 90.9 9.1 9.2 9.5 9.5 9.3 9.1 9.4

Farming, fishing, and forestry

s s s s s s s s s

Construction and extraction

9,847 95.9 9.1 z 9.8 9.8 9.2 z 9.3

Installation, maintenance, and repair

9,939 96.4 93.6 9.6 9.8 z z z 9.1

Production

9,001 96.2 93.8 9.1 9.8 9.2 9.3 9.0 9.4

Transportation and material moving

9,227 94.7 95.3 9.0 9.3 9.1 9.2 9.5 9.3

Industry

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

s s s s s s s s s

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

s s s s s s s s s

Construction

9,697 96.1 9.9 z 9.0 9.5 9.0 z 9.3

Manufacturing

96,528 96.2 93.8 9.1 9.3 9.9 9.4 9.7 9.3

Wholesale and retail trade

99,014 91.8 98.2 90.1 9.6 9.5 9.0 9.9 9.1

Transportation and utilities

9,018 96.1 93.9 9.1 9.3 9.1 9.8 9.7 9.0

Information

9,666 97.4 9.6 9.5 9.6 z 9.4 9.2 z

Financial activities

90,616 93.2 9.8 9.2 9.6 9.1 9.1 9.5 9.4

Professional and business services

95,942 95.1 9.9 9.4 9.8 9.9 9.6 9.2 9.0

Education and health services

96,775 95.0 95.0 9.7 9.9 9.6 9.5 9.7 9.6

Leisure and hospitality

93,226 93.4 96.6 96.5 9.2 9.6 9.9 9.6 9.8

Other services

9,704 91.4 9.6 9.4 9.4 9.7 9.2 9.1 9.8

Public administration

9,886 91.0 99.0 9.5 9.4 9.4 9.6 9.1 9.1

Class of worker

Private sector

918,698 92.9 97.1 9.7 9.4 9.6 9.4 9.8 9.2

Private, for profit

906,193 92.7 97.3 9.8 9.2 9.7 9.5 9.8 9.3

Private, not for profit

92,505 94.4 95.6 9.3 9.8 9.0 9.0 9.6 9.8

Public sector

94,627 96.5 93.5 9.8 9.1 9.9 9.4 9.5 9.8

Federal government

9,415 95.3 94.7 9.1 9.8 9.0 9.7 9.1 z

State government

9,272 98.5 91.5 9.2 9.3 9.3 9.2 9.1 9.4

Local government

91,940 95.6 94.4 9.5 9.2 9.6 9.4 9.2 9.4

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(3)

Full-time workers

903,981 96.5 93.5 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.9 9.5 9.2

Part-time workers

96,249 95.0 95.0 91.9 9.0 9.3 9.6 9.1 9.1

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers (single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

94,145 90.4 99.6 9.1 9.2 9.9 9.8 9.3 9.2

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

96,817 94.9 95.1 9.0 9.6 9.2 9.8 9.0 9.5

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

96,532 98.6 91.4 9.7 9.8 9.6 9.2 9.4 9.6

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

96,486 91.4 9.6 9.1 9.7 9.0 9.0 9.2 9.6

Work schedule flexibility(4)

Had flexible schedule

90,286 94.9 95.1 9.2 9.8 9.0 9.5 9.6 9.9

Did not have flexible schedule

93,038 91.7 98.3 9.5 9.8 9.9 9.7 9.9 9.5

Workplace flexibility(5)

Could work at home

99,983 95.0 9.0 9.0 9.6 9.8 9.9 9.4 9.3

Could not work at home

903,080 99.0 91.0 9.1 9.5 9.2 9.9 9.8 9.5

(1) Estimates for race groups (White, Black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to the total because data are not presented for all races.
(2) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(3) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
(4) Workers with flexible schedules were able to vary or change the times they began and stopped working.
(5) The subcategories do not sum to the total because a small number of workers did not provide this information.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.
z - Estimate is approximately zero.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Table 8. Main reason for working non-daytime schedules by sex and shift, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic and reason Workers who worked non-daytime schedules
Total Evening Night Rotating Irregular Split shift or
other

Total

Number (in thousands)

93,626 9,671 9,918 9,589 9,718 9,730

Percent distribution by main reason, total

900.0 900.0 900.0 900.0 900.0 900.0

Better arrangements for family

90.2 93.0 93.0 9.0 9.2 9.6

Better pay

9.5 9.1 97.3 9.1 9.6 90.6

Allows time for school or other job

92.8 93.1 9.1 9.9 9.5 9.3

Could not get other shift

91.5 98.0 91.1 90.3 9.5 9.3

Nature of the job

94.4 92.3 91.8 95.7 90.4 96.0

Personal preference

90.1 99.1 97.7 91.5 9.2 90.2

Other

9.6 9.3 9.0 9.6 9.5 9.0

Men

Number (in thousands)

93,426 9,732 9,902 s s s

Percent distribution by main reason, total

900.0 900.0 900.0 s s s

Better arrangements for family

9.1 91.5 9.3 s s s

Better pay

9.3 9.1 92.0 s s s

Allows time for school or other job

91.0 91.7 9.0 s s s

Could not get other shift

92.9 90.3 92.1 s s s

Nature of the job

98.1 92.1 96.5 s s s

Personal preference

90.0 90.5 94.5 s s s

Other

9.6 9.8 9.6 s s s

Women

Number (in thousands)

90,200 9,939 9,016 s s s

Percent distribution by main reason, total

900.0 900.0 900.0 s s s

Better arrangements for family

92.9 95.5 98.5 s s s

Better pay

90.2 9.3 92.3 s s s

Allows time for school or other job

95.0 95.4 9.1 s s s

Could not get other shift

9.6 94.3 90.1 s s s

Nature of the job

99.6 92.5 97.3 s s s

Personal preference

90.2 97.0 91.3 s s s

Other

9.5 9.0 9.3 s s s

s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers, 15 years and over, at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded.


Table 9. Number of days per week workers usually worked and percent working, by day of week and selected characteristics, averages for the period 2017-2018
Characteristic Average
number of
days per
week
worked
Percent of workers by days usually worked
Monday
through
Friday(1)
Saturday
and
Sunday(2)
Schedule
varies
Monday Tuesday Wednes-
day
Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday

Age

Total, 15 years and over

9.77 98.6 9.2 90.3 91.2 92.6 92.5 92.9 90.3 99.7 93.0

15 to 24 years

9.34 94.4 97.7 96.2 91.1 92.1 95.0 97.3 91.8 95.4 94.8

25 to 34 years

9.84 92.2 9.6 91.1 93.7 92.7 93.1 93.1 92.1 98.3 91.1

35 to 44 years

9.90 96.8 9.7 9.1 97.4 98.5 97.4 98.2 95.2 96.6 91.1

45 to 54 years

9.94 97.1 9.0 9.1 97.5 99.7 96.9 98.5 94.1 96.2 90.9

55 to 64 years

9.81 91.1 9.3 9.5 93.8 97.3 97.7 96.2 99.8 95.8 90.7

65 years and over

9.28 97.4 9.1 93.9 98.6 94.1 96.4 92.0 93.9 99.2 91.2

Sex

Men

9.89 92.6 91.2 9.7 94.1 95.0 95.4 95.7 93.9 93.0 94.5

Women

9.63 94.1 9.0 92.1 97.9 90.0 99.3 99.7 96.3 95.9 91.3

Race

White

9.77 99.7 9.6 90.3 91.9 93.5 93.2 93.6 90.3 99.5 92.2

Black or African American

9.79 92.6 90.2 91.0 99.0 90.2 90.0 91.8 99.7 90.1 96.0

Asian

9.62 97.3 94.4 90.7 95.7 95.6 97.3 96.3 94.7 99.0 95.4

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity(3)

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

9.85 96.7 9.0 93.1 99.6 91.7 90.2 90.6 98.3 95.6 92.1

Non-Hispanic or Latino

9.75 99.0 9.5 9.8 91.5 92.8 93.0 93.3 90.7 98.5 93.2

Educational attainment (25 years and over)

Less than a high school diploma

9.98 95.9 91.6 92.3 93.8 92.1 92.2 92.2 98.4 91.4 97.1

High school graduates, no college

9.88 96.8 90.3 90.8 92.1 93.2 91.3 93.1 99.2 91.2 94.1

Some college or associate degree

9.75 97.0 9.9 91.5 99.7 92.3 93.6 91.8 99.0 98.3 91.1

Bachelor's degree and higher

9.85 90.2 9.8 9.9 98.8 90.4 99.4 99.4 95.3 91.8 9.3

Parent of a household child

Parent of a household child under 18 years

9.86 94.3 9.6 9.2 95.3 96.2 95.6 95.8 94.2 96.0 90.5

Parent of a child 13 to 17 years (none younger)

9.79 93.8 9.2 9.4 95.3 97.4 95.2 95.1 99.0 93.7 9.0

Parent of a child under 13 years

9.87 94.5 9.2 9.1 95.3 95.9 95.7 96.0 95.5 96.6 91.2

Not a parent of a household child under 18 years

9.72 95.7 90.6 90.9 99.1 90.8 90.9 91.4 98.4 91.5 94.3

Occupation

Management, business, and financial operations

9.03 96.0 9.0 9.8 91.9 93.6 91.9 93.1 90.5 93.1 9.2

Professional and related

9.73 95.6 9.3 9.5 95.2 98.2 96.6 96.4 92.1 90.6 9.9

Services

9.55 91.8 93.2 95.5 94.5 94.3 97.8 99.8 96.3 96.5 99.4

Sales and related

9.67 93.2 93.0 98.0 99.3 90.1 97.8 90.2 94.7 98.8 98.9

Office and administrative support

9.65 98.0 9.2 90.8 92.3 92.7 94.0 92.5 92.6 92.4 9.4

Farming, fishing, and forestry

s s s s s s s s s s s

Construction and extraction

9.05 97.4 9.0 9.9 95.2 96.2 96.2 95.3 98.4 97.2 9.5

Installation, maintenance, and repair

9.99 90.9 9.6 9.8 90.1 94.3 94.7 94.3 98.9 95.5 9.2

Production

9.84 95.8 90.0 9.6 97.5 90.3 99.2 98.6 99.6 91.0 93.6

Transportation and material moving

9.86 95.3 9.1 97.3 94.9 95.4 97.2 96.3 99.6 98.9 94.0

Industry

Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting

s s s s s s s s s s s

Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction

s s s s s s s s s s s

Construction

9.06 99.8 9.0 9.2 95.0 95.2 94.7 94.6 91.3 99.9 9.9

Manufacturing

9.95 96.4 9.7 9.5 94.2 96.0 95.0 94.7 98.4 93.1 9.5

Wholesale and retail trade

9.61 98.5 91.5 91.4 93.9 95.3 98.1 98.0 91.7 99.4 97.9

Transportation and utilities

9.88 97.8 94.8 95.9 99.5 96.2 98.0 91.4 97.5 93.7 98.7

Information

9.90 98.1 9.7 9.7 90.6 97.7 94.2 99.7 92.6 96.3 9.6

Financial activities

9.91 93.5 9.6 9.6 90.1 93.0 93.6 91.4 90.1 95.4 9.3

Professional and business services

9.85 95.7 9.2 9.7 92.4 93.6 92.7 92.0 90.5 9.9 9.1

Education and health services

9.68 99.7 9.4 90.2 93.4 93.9 93.1 94.5 98.7 92.5 9.5

Leisure and hospitality

9.54 90.6 90.7 90.3 94.1 97.0 99.6 91.2 92.1 97.4 98.2

Other services

9.59 99.3 95.1 9.3 93.8 99.5 92.4 93.8 95.5 98.5 99.8

Public administration

9.73 93.4 9.9 90.8 94.6 97.3 95.9 95.5 98.1 9.9 9.1

Class of worker

Private sector

9.75 96.4 9.9 90.6 99.6 91.4 91.2 91.7 99.6 91.3 94.0

Private, for profit

9.77 97.1 9.9 90.7 99.6 91.3 91.6 91.7 90.3 91.9 93.9

Private, not for profit

9.57 90.3 9.9 90.0 99.8 92.2 97.6 91.4 94.0 96.5 95.3

Public sector

9.86 99.1 9.3 9.7 98.6 98.3 98.8 98.5 93.9 91.6 9.2

Federal government

9.91 93.5 9.1 91.6 97.9 95.8 96.1 99.4 91.5 92.3 9.1

State government

9.88 98.2 9.2 9.3 98.7 98.3 98.5 98.1 92.3 95.7 91.8

Local government

9.82 91.7 9.7 9.9 98.9 99.4 90.1 98.5 95.9 9.5 9.8

Full- and part-time status (single jobholders only)(4)

Full-time workers

9.02 99.8 9.8 9.9 98.6 99.2 99.1 90.2 97.7 97.5 91.0

Part-time workers

9.84 97.1 94.1 90.1 92.8 96.5 96.9 95.5 94.0 97.9 91.3

Usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary
workers (single jobholders only)

Earnings less than or equal to the 25th percentile

9.00 99.4 93.8 92.5 91.5 90.8 92.0 93.9 91.8 93.8 97.1

Earnings from 25th to 50th percentiles

9.98 95.9 9.4 9.4 97.2 98.3 98.4 99.3 94.7 98.1 9.3

Earnings from 50th to 75th percentiles

9.02 92.8 9.8 9.8 99.8 91.0 90.8 92.6 90.2 94.7 9.9

Earnings greater than the 75th percentile

9.08 90.5 9.8 9.3 95.2 95.9 94.4 94.5 93.6 93.8 9.4

Work schedule flexibility(5)

Had flexible schedule

9.76 97.6 90.3 90.3 99.8 91.6 91.7 92.1 90.0 90.5 94.4

Did not have flexible schedule

9.77 99.8 9.9 90.3 92.9 93.9 93.5 93.9 90.7 98.6 91.2

Workplace flexibility

Could work at home

9.00 97.1 9.6 9.6 93.4 95.4 95.8 94.6 91.3 91.9 9.3

Could not work at home

9.68 91.5 90.7 93.1 96.6 97.8 97.5 98.5 96.3 92.7 94.9

(1) Workers who usually worked Monday through Friday also are counted in the estimates for each weekday.
(2) Workers who usually worked Saturday and Sunday also are counted in the estimates for each weekend day.
(3) Persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
(4) Full-time workers usually work 35 hours or more per week. Part-time workers usually work less than 35 hours per week.
(5) Workers with flexible schedules were able to vary or change the times they began and stopped working.
s - Estimate is suppressed because it does not meet the American Time Use Survey publication standards.

Note: Data refer to wage and salary workers at their main jobs. All self-employed workers (including workers with incorporated businesses and those with unincorporated businesses) are excluded. Unless otherwise specified, data refer to workers 15 years and over.


Last Modified Date: November 02, 2020