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Economic News Release
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Quarterly Data Series on Business Employment Dynamics News Release

For release 10:00 a.m. (EST), Wednesday, January 30, 2019                                  	USDL-19-0137

Technical Information:	(202) 691-6553  *  BDMInfo@bls.gov  *  www.bls.gov/bdm
Media Contact:	        (202) 691-5902  *  PressOffice@bls.gov

BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS – SECOND QUARTER 2018

From March 2018 to June 2018, gross job gains from opening and expanding private-sector 
establishments were 7.6 million, an increase of 233,000 jobs from the previous quarter, the U.S. Bureau 
of Labor Statistics reported today. Over this period, gross job losses from closing and contracting 
private-sector establishments were 7.2 million, an increase of 536,000 jobs from the previous quarter. 
The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross job losses yielded a net 
employment gain of 437,000 jobs in the private sector during the second quarter of 2018. (See tables A 
and 1.)

 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
|                                                                                                         |
|                    Notice Regarding South Carolina Business Employment Dynamics Data                    |
|                                                                                                         |
|   Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data for first and second quarter 2018 for South Carolina show     |
|   unusual movements, which may be a result of a change in reporting. These unusual movements coincide   |
|   with a modernization of the South Carolina unemployment insurance system. For more information,       |
|   please visit: www.bls.gov/cew/2018-notice-regarding-south-carolina-employment-and-wages-data.htm.     |
|                                                                                                         |
 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of increases and decreases in employment 
that occur at all private businesses in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics statistics track 
these changes in employment at private-sector establishments from the third month of one quarter to the 
third month of the next. The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number of gross 
job losses is the net change in employment. (See Technical Note.) The BED data series include gross job 
gains and gross job losses by industry subsector, for the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, 
and the Virgin Islands, as well as gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size 
class. //CEWBD ZUNI3PO Test 11/2/2020/

Gross Job Gains

In the second quarter of 2018, gross job gains represented 6.1 percent of private-sector employment. 
Gross job gains are the sum of increases in employment due to expansions at existing establishments and 
the addition of new jobs at opening establishments. Gross job gains at expanding establishments totaled 
6.2 million in the second quarter of 2018, an increase of 174,000 jobs compared to the previous quarter. 
Opening establishments accounted for 1.4 million of the jobs gained in the second quarter of 2018, an 
increase of 59,000 jobs from the previous quarter. (See tables A, 1, 2, and 3.)

Gross Job Losses

In the second quarter of 2018, gross job losses represented 5.8 percent of private-sector employment. 
Gross job losses are the result of contractions in employment at existing establishments and the loss of 
jobs at closing establishments. Contracting establishments lost 5.9 million jobs in the second quarter of 
2018, an increase of 416,000 jobs from the prior quarter. In the second quarter of 2018, closing 
establishments lost 1.3 million jobs, an increase of 120,000 jobs from the previous quarter. (See tables 
A, 1, 2, and 3.)

Establishment Births and Deaths

In the second quarter of 2018, the number of establishment births (a subset of the openings data) 
increased by 13,000, to a total of 263,000 establishments. These new establishments accounted for 
878,000 jobs, an increase of 61,000 jobs from the previous quarter. Data for establishment deaths (a 
subset of the closings data) are available through the third quarter of 2017, when 763,000 jobs were lost 
at 226,000 establishments, an increase of 3,000 jobs from the second quarter of 2017. (See Technical 
Note and table 8.)

Industries

Gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in 9 of 13 industries in the second quarter of 2018. The 
service-providing industries experienced a net job increase of 295,000 jobs in the second quarter of 
2018. Within service-providing industries, professional and business services had the largest over-the-
quarter net job increase, with a gain of 102,000 jobs. The net job increase in professional and business 
services was the result of 1.5 million gross job gains and 1.4 million gross job losses. The retail trade 
industry had the largest decrease among service-providing industries, with a loss of 53,000 jobs. The 
goods-producing industries experienced a net job increase of 142,000 jobs in the second quarter of 2018. 
Of the goods-producing industries, manufacturing added 63,000 jobs, construction added 51,000, and 
natural resources and mining experienced a net increase of 28,000 jobs. (See table 3.)

 Table A. Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses, seasonally adjusted

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                          |                  3 months ended                 
                 Category                 |    June |   Sept. |    Dec. |    Mar. |    June
                                          |    2017 |    2017 |    2017 |    2018 |    2018
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                          |              Levels (in thousands)              
                                          |--------------------------------------------------
 Gross job gains......................... |   7,624 |   7,311 |   7,826 |   7,406 |   7,639
        At expanding establishments...... |   6,255 |   5,959 |   6,383 |   6,071 |   6,245
        At opening establishments........ |   1,369 |   1,352 |   1,443 |   1,335 |   1,394
                                          |         |         |         |         |        
 Gross job losses........................ |   7,161 |   7,404 |   6,847 |   6,666 |   7,202
        At contracting establishments.... |   5,889 |   6,106 |   5,547 |   5,526 |   5,942
        At closing establishments........ |   1,272 |   1,298 |   1,300 |   1,140 |   1,260
                                          |         |         |         |         |        
 Net employment change (1)............... |     463 |     -93 |     979 |     740 |     437
                                          |         |         |         |         |        
                                          |--------------------------------------------------
                                          |                 Rates (percent)                 
                                          |--------------------------------------------------
 Gross job gains......................... |     6.2 |     6.0 |     6.4 |     6.0 |     6.1
        At expanding establishments...... |     5.1 |     4.9 |     5.2 |     4.9 |     5.0
        At opening establishments........ |     1.1 |     1.1 |     1.2 |     1.1 |     1.1
                                          |         |         |         |         |        
 Gross job losses........................ |     5.8 |     6.1 |     5.6 |     5.4 |     5.8
        At contracting establishments.... |     4.8 |     5.0 |     4.5 |     4.5 |     4.8
        At closing establishments........ |     1.0 |     1.1 |     1.1 |     0.9 |     1.0
                                          |         |         |         |         |        
 Net employment change (1)............... |     0.4 |    -0.1 |     0.8 |     0.6 |     0.3
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(1) The net employment change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross 
    job losses. See the Technical Note for further information.

Firm Size

In the second quarter of 2018, firms with 1-49 employees had a net employment gain of 137,000. Firms 
with 50-249 employees had a net employment gain of 154,000. Firms with 250 or more employees had a 
net employment gain of 167,000. (See tables 4 and 5.)

States

Gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in 39 states and the District of Columbia in the second quarter 
of 2018.  Among the states, Alaska had the highest rate of gross job gains as a percent of employment at 
10.9 percent, above the U.S. rate of 6.1 percent. Arkansas had the lowest rate of gross job gains as a 
percent of employment at 5.0 percent. Alaska had the highest rate of gross job losses as a percent of 
employment at 10.7 percent, above the national rate of 5.8 percent. Connecticut had the lowest rate of 
gross job losses as a percent of employment at 5.0 percent. (See tables 6 and 7.)

For More Information

Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses is available online at www.bls.gov/bdm. 
This information includes data on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross job losses by firm 
size, not seasonally adjusted data and other seasonally adjusted time series not presented in this release, 
charts of gross job gains and gross job losses by industry and firm size, and frequently asked questions 
on firm size data. Additional information about the Business Employment Dynamics data can be found 
in the Technical Note of this release or can be obtained by emailing BDMinfo@bls.gov. 

_____________
The Business Employment Dynamics for Third Quarter 2018 are scheduled to be released on 
Wednesday, April 24, 2019 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT)






Technical Note

The Business Employment Dynamics (BED) data are a product of a federal-state cooperative 
program known as Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW). The BED data are 
compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) from existing QCEW records. Most 
employers in the U.S. are required to file quarterly reports on the employment and wages of 
workers covered by unemployment insurance (UI) laws and to pay quarterly UI taxes. The QCEW 
is based largely on quarterly UI reports which are sent by businesses to the State Workforce 
Agencies (SWAs). These UI reports are supplemented by two additional BLS data collections to 
render administrative data into economic statistics. Together these data comprise the QCEW and 
form the basis of the Bureau’s establishment universe sampling frame.

These reports are used to produce the quarterly QCEW data on total employment and wages and 
the longitudinal BED data on gross job gains and losses. The QCEW is also the employment 
benchmark for the Current Employment Statistics (CES), Occupational Employment Statistics 
(OES), and Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) programs and is a major input to 
the Bureau of Economic Analysis’s Personal Income Accounts.

In the BED program, the quarterly QCEW records are linked across quarters to provide a 
longitudinal history for each establishment. The linkage process allows the tracking of net 
employment changes at the establishment level, which in turn allows the estimation of jobs gained 
at opening and expanding units and jobs lost at closing and contracting units.

Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES employment measures

The Bureau publishes three different establishment-based employment measures for any given 
quarter. Each of these measures—Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW), Business 
Employment Dynamics (BED), and Current Employment Statistics (CES)—makes use of the 
quarterly UI employment reports in producing data; however, each measure has a somewhat 
different universe coverage, estimation procedure, and publication product.

Differences in coverage and estimation methods can result in somewhat different measures of 
employment change over time. It is important to understand program differences and the intended 
uses of the program products. (See table.) Additional information on each program can be obtained 
from the program websites shown in the table.

Summary of Major Differences between QCEW, BED, and CES Employment Measures
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
           |         QCEW        |         BED          |         CES
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Source     |--Count of UI admini-|--Count of longitudi- |--Sample survey:
           |  strative records   |  nally-linked UI ad- |  651,000 establish-
           |  submitted by 10.0  |  ministrative records|  ments
           |  million establish- |  submitted by 8.0    |
           |  ments in first qu- |  million private-sec-|
           |  arter of 2018      |  tor establishments  |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Coverage   |--UI and UCFE cover- |--UI Coverage, exclud-|Nonfarm wage and salary
           |  age, including all |  ing government, pri-|  jobs:
           |  employers subject  |  vate households, and|--UI Coverage, exclud-
           |  to state and feder-|  establishments with |  ing agriculture, pri-
           |  ral UI Laws        |  zero employment     |  vate households, and
           |                     |                      |  self-employed workers
           |                     |                      |--other employment, 
           |                     |                      |  including railroads,
           |                     |                      |  religious organiza-
           |                     |                      |  tions, and other non-
           |                     |                      |  UI-covered jobs
           |                     |                      |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Publication|--Quarterly          |--Quarterly           |--Monthly 
frequency  |  -6 months after the|  -7 months after the |  -Usually the 3rd Fri-
           |   end of each quar- |   end of each quarter|   day after the end of
           |   ter               |                      |   the week including 
           |                     |                      |   the 12th of the month
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Use of UI  |--Directly summarizes|--Links each new UI   |--Uses UI file as a sam-
file       |  and publishes each |  quarter to longitu- |  pling frame and to ann-
           |  new quarter of UI  |  dinal database and  |  ually realign sample-
           |  data               |  directly summarizes |  based estimates to pop-
           |                     |  gross job gains and |  ulation counts (bench-
           |                     |  losses              |  marking)
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Provides a quarter-|--Provides quarterly  |--Provides current month-
products   |  ly and annual uni- |  employer dynamics   |  ly estimates of employ-
           |  verse count of es- |  data on establish-  |  ment, hours, and earn-
           |  tablishments, em-  |  ment openings, clos-|  ings at the MSA, state,
           |  ployment, and wages|  ings, expansions,   |  and national level by
           |  at the county, Met-|  and contractions at |  industry
           |  ropolitan statisti-|  the national level  |
           |  cal area (MSA), St-|  by NAICS super-     |
           |  ate, and national  |  sectors,3-digit     |
           |  levels by detailed |  NAICS, and by size  |
           |  industry           |  of firm, and at the |
           |                     |  state private-sector|
           |                     |  total level         |
           |                     |--Future expansions   |
           |                     |  will include        |
           |                     |  data with greater   |
           |                     |  industry detail and |
           |                     |  data at the county  |
           |                     |  and MSA level       |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Principal  |--Major uses include:|--Major uses include: |--Major uses include:
uses       |  -Detailed locality |  -Business cycle     |  -Principal federal
           |   data              |   analysis           |   economic indicator
           |  -Periodic universe |  -Analysis of employ-|  -Official time series 
           |   counts for bench- |   er dynamics under- |   for employment change
           |   marking sample    |   lying economic ex- |   measures
           |   survey estimates  |   pansions and con-  |  -Input into other ma-
           |  -Sample frame for  |   tractions          |   jor economic indi-
           |   BLS establishment |  -Analysis of employ-|   cators
           |   surveys           |   ment expansion and |
           |                     |   contraction by size|
           |                     |   of firm            |
-----------|---------------------|----------------------|------------------------
Program    |--www.bls.gov/cew    |--www.bls.gov/bdm     |--www.bls.gov/ces 
Web sites  |                     |                      |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Coverage

Employment and wage data for workers covered by state UI and Unemployment Compensation for 
Federal Employees (UCFE) laws are compiled from quarterly contribution reports submitted to the 
SWAs by employers. In addition to the quarterly contribution reports, employers who operate 
multiple establishments within a state complete a questionnaire, called the “Multiple Worksite 
Report,” which provides detailed information on the location of their establishments. These reports 
are based on place of employment rather than place of residence. UI and UCFE coverage is broad 
and basically comparable from state to state. 

Major exclusions from UI coverage are self-employed workers, religious organizations, most 
agricultural workers on small farms, all members of the Armed Forces, elected officials in most 
states, most employees of railroads, some domestic workers, most student workers at schools, and 
employees of certain small nonprofit organizations.

Gross job gains and gross job losses in this release are derived from longitudinal histories of 8.0 
million private sector employer reports out of 10.0 million total reports of employment and wages 
submitted by states to BLS in the first quarter of 2018. Gross job gains and gross job losses data in 
this release do not report estimates for government employees or private households (NAICS 
814110) and do not include establishments with zero employment in both previous and current 
quarters. Data from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands are also excluded from the national data. 
The table below shows, in millions of establishments, the number of establishments excluded from 
the national gross job gains and gross job losses data in the first quarter 2018.

                         Number of active establishments included in                       
                   Business Employment Dynamics data at the national level                 

 Total establishments QCEW program....................................................10.0

   Excluded: Public sector............................................................ 0.3
           Private households......................................................... 0.2
           Zero employment............................................................ 1.5

 Total establishments included in Business
 Employment Dynamics data............................................................. 8.0

Unit of analysis

Establishments are used in the tabulation of the BED statistics by industry and firms are used in the 
tabulation of the BED size class statistics. An establishment is defined as an economic unit that 
produces goods or services, usually at a single physical location, and engages in one or 
predominantly one activity. A firm is a legal business, either corporate or otherwise, and may 
consist of several establishments. Firm-level data are compiled based on an aggregation of 
establishments under common ownership by a corporate parent using employer tax identification 
numbers. The firm level aggregation which is consistent with the role of corporations as the 
economic decision makers are used for the measurement of the BED data elements by size class.

Because of the difference in the unit of analysis, total gross job gains and gross job losses by size 
class are lower than total gross job gains and gross job losses by industry, as some establishment 
gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process. However, the total net 
changes in employment are the same for not seasonally adjusted data and are similar for seasonally 
adjusted data.

Concepts and methodology

The Business Employment Dynamics data measure the net change in employment at the 
establishment or firm level. These changes come about in one of four ways. A net increase in 
employment can come from either opening units or expanding units. A net decrease in 
employment can come from either closing units or contracting units. Gross job gains include the 
sum of all jobs added at either opening or expanding units. Gross job losses include the sum of all 
jobs lost in either closing or contracting units. The net change in employment is the difference 
between gross job gains and gross job losses.

The formal definitions of employment changes are as follows:

Openings. These are either units with positive third month employment for the first time in the 
current quarter, with no links to the prior quarter, or with positive third month employment in the 
current quarter following zero employment in the previous quarter.

Expansions. These are units with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and 
current quarters, with a net increase in employment over this period.

Closings. These are either units with positive third month employment in the previous quarter, with 
no employment or zero employment reported in the current quarter.

Contractions. These are units with positive employment in the third month in both the previous and 
current quarters, with a net decrease in employment over this period.

Births. These are units with positive third month employment for the first time in the current 
quarter with no links to the prior quarter, or units with positive third month employment in the 
current quarter and zero employment in the third month of the previous four quarters. Births are a 
subset of openings not including re-openings of seasonal businesses.

Deaths. These are units with no employment or zero employment reported in the third month of 
four consecutive quarters following the last quarter with positive employment. Deaths are a subset 
of closings not including temporary shutdowns of seasonal businesses. A unit that closes during the 
quarter may be a death, but we wait three quarters to determine whether it is a permanent closing 
or a temporary shutdown. Therefore, there is always a lag of three quarters for the publication of 
death statistics.

All employment changes are measured from the third month of the previous quarter to the third 
month of the current quarter. Not all establishments and firms change their employment levels. 
Units with no change in employment count towards estimates of total employment, but not for 
levels of gross job gains and gross job losses.

Gross job gains and gross job losses are expressed as rates by dividing their levels by the average 
of employment in the current and previous quarters. This provides a symmetric growth rate. The 
rates are calculated for the components of gross job gains and gross job losses and then summed to 
form their respective totals. These rates can be added and subtracted just as their levels can. For 
instance, the difference between the gross job gains rate and the gross job losses rate is the net 
growth rate.

Establishment Births and Deaths

For the purpose of BED statistics, births are defined as establishments that appear in the 
longitudinal database for the first time with positive employment in the third month of a quarter, or 
showed four consecutive quarters of zero employment in the third month followed by a quarter in 
which it shows positive employment in the third month. Similarly, deaths are defined as 
establishments that either drop out of the longitudinal database or an establishment that had 
positive employment in the third month of a given quarter followed by four consecutive quarters of 
showing zero employment in the third month. Although the data for establishment births and 
deaths are tabulated independently from the data for openings and closings, the concepts are not 
mutually exclusive. An establishment that is defined as a birth in a given quarter is necessarily an 
opening as well, and an establishment defined as a death in a quarter must also be a closing. Since 
openings include seasonal and other re-openings and closings include temporary shutdowns, the 
not seasonally adjusted values for births and deaths must be less than those for openings and 
closings. However, because some BED series do not have many re-openings or temporary 
shutdowns, as well as the fact that births and deaths are independently seasonally adjusted from 
openings and closings, there may be instances in which the seasonally adjusted value of the former 
is greater than the latter.

Linkage methodology

Prior to the measurement of gross job gains and gross job losses, QCEW records are linked across 
two quarters. The linkage process matches establishments' unique SWA identification numbers 
(SWA-ID). Between 95 and 97 percent of establishments identified as continuous from quarter to 
quarter are matched by SWA-ID. The rest are linked in one of three ways. The first method uses 
predecessor and successor information, identified by the states, which relates records with different 
SWA-IDs across quarters. Predecessor and successor relations can come about for a variety of 
reasons, including a change in ownership, a firm restructuring, or a UI account restructuring. If a 
match cannot be attained in this manner, a probability-based match is used. This match attempts to 
identify two establishments with different SWA-IDs as continuous. The match is based upon 
comparisons such as the same name, address, and phone number. Third, an analyst examines 
unmatched records individually and makes a possible match.

In order to ensure the highest possible quality of data, SWAs verify with employers and update, if 
necessary, the industry, location, and ownership classification of all establishments on a 3-year 
cycle. Changes in establishment classification codes resulting from the verification process are 
introduced with the data reported for the first quarter of the year. Changes resulting from improved 
employer reporting also are introduced in the first quarter.

Sizing methodology

The method of dynamic sizing is used in calculations for the BED size class data series. Dynamic 
sizing allocates each firm’s employment gain or loss during a quarter to each respective size class 
in which the change occurred. For example, if a firm grew from 2 employees in quarter 1 to 38 
employees in quarter 2, then, of the 36-employee increase, 2 would be allocated to the first size 
class, 5 to the size class 5 to 9, 10 to size class 10 to 19, and 19 to size class 20 to 49.

Dynamic sizing provides symmetrical firm-size estimates and eliminates any systematic effects 
which may be caused by the transitory and reverting changes in firms’ sizes over time. 
Additionally, it allocates each job gain or loss to the actual size class where it occurred.

Annual Data

The annual gross job gains and gross job losses measure the net change in employment at the 
establishment level from the third month of a quarter in the previous year to the third month of the 
same quarter in the current year. The BLS publishes annual BED data based on March-to-March 
changes once a year with the release of the first quarter BED data. The annual data based on over-
the-year changes for other quarters of the year are available upon request. The definitions and 
methodology in measuring annual gross job gains and gross job losses are similar to the quarterly 
measures. The linkage method considers all predecessor and successor relations that may come 
about due to changes in ownership and corporate restructuring over the entire year. At the 
establishment level, some of the quarterly job gains and job losses are offset during the estimation 
over the year. Therefore, the sum of four quarters of gross job gains and gross job losses are not 
equal to annual gross job gains and gross job losses. The net change in employment over the year, 
however, is equal to the sum of four quarterly net changes on a not seasonally adjusted basis.

Seasonal adjustment

Over the course of a year, the levels of employment and the associated job flows undergo sharp 
fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes in the weather, reduced or expanded 
production, harvests, major holidays, and the opening and closing of schools. The effect of such 
seasonal variation can be very large.

Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year, their influence can 
be eliminated by adjusting these statistics from quarter to quarter. These adjustments make 
nonseasonal developments, such as declines in economic activity, easier to recognize. For 
example, the large number of youths taking summer jobs is likely to obscure other changes that 
have taken place in June relative to March, making it difficult to determine if the level of economic 
activity has risen or declined. However, because the effect of students finishing school in previous 
years is known, the statistics for the current year can be adjusted to allow for a comparable change. 
The adjusted figures provide a more useful tool with which to analyze changes in economic 
activity.

The employment data series for opening, expanding, closing, and contracting units are 
independently seasonally adjusted; net changes are calculated based on the difference between 
gross job gains and gross job losses. Similarly, for industry data, the establishment counts data 
series for opening, expanding, closing, and contracting establishments are independently adjusted, 
and the net changes are calculated based on the difference between the number of opening and 
closing establishments. Additionally establishment and employment levels are independently 
seasonally adjusted to calculate the seasonally adjusted rates. Concurrent seasonal adjustment is 
run using X-13 ARIMA-SEATS. Seasonally adjusted data series for total private are the sum of 
seasonally adjusted data of all sectors including the unclassified sector, which is not separately 
published.

The net over-the-quarter change derived by summing the BED component series will differ from 
the net employment change estimated from the seasonally adjusted total private employment series 
from the CES program. The intended use of BED statistics is to show the dynamic labor market 
changes that underlie the net employment change statistic. As such, data users interested 
particularly in the net employment change and not in the gross job flows underlying this change 
should refer to CES data for over-the-quarter net employment changes.

Reliability of the data

Since the data series on Business Employment Dynamics are based on administrative rather than 
sample data, there are no issues related to sampling error. Nonsampling error, however, still exists. 
Nonsampling errors can occur for many reasons, such as the employer submitting corrected 
employment data after the end of the quarter or typographical errors made by businesses when 
providing information. Such errors, however, are likely to be distributed randomly throughout the 
dataset.

Changes in administrative data sometimes create complications for the linkage process. This can 
result in overstating openings and closings while understating expansions and contractions. The 
BLS continues to refine methods for improving the linkage process to alleviate the effects of these 
complications.

The BED data series are subject to periodic minor changes based on corrections in QCEW records, 
updates on predecessors and successors information, and seasonal adjustment revisions.

Annual revisions are published each year with the release of the first quarter data. These revisions 
cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adjusted data and 5 years of seasonally adjusted data.

Additional statistics and other information

Several other programs within BLS produce closely related information. The QCEW program 
provides both quarterly and annual estimates of employment by state, county, and detailed 
industry. News releases on quarterly county employment and wages and the annual bulletin also 
are available upon request from the Division of Administrative Statistics and Labor Turnover 
(Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages), telephone (202) 691-6567; (www.bls.gov/cew/); 
(e-mail: QCEWInfo@bls.gov).

The Current Employment Statistics (CES) program produces monthly estimates of employment, its 
net change, hours, and earnings by detailed industry. These estimates are part of the Employment 
Situation report put out monthly by BLS.

The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) program provides monthly measures of 
job openings, as well as employee hires and separations.

Information in this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. 
Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; TDD message referral phone number: 1 (800) 877-8339.






Table 1. Private sector gross job gains and job losses, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(In thousands)

                                                     Gross job gains                          Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(1)     Total     Expanding      Opening         Total     Contracting    Closing
                                               establishments establishments            establishments establishments

2008  March                 -199        7,320         5,860        1,460         7,519          6,111       1,408
      June                  -593        7,281         5,833        1,448         7,874          6,363       1,511
      September             -913        6,944         5,535        1,409         7,857          6,436       1,421
      December            -1,838        6,738         5,345        1,393         8,576          7,056       1,520
 
2009  March               -2,680        5,918         4,675        1,243         8,598          7,142       1,456
      June                -1,667        6,425         5,080        1,345         8,092          6,674       1,418
      September             -849        6,399         5,139        1,260         7,248          5,854       1,394
      December              -264        6,665         5,308        1,357         6,929          5,605       1,324
 
2010  March                 -247        6,325         5,108        1,217         6,572          5,324       1,248
      June                   698        6,995         5,674        1,321         6,297          5,090       1,207
      September              237        6,741         5,438        1,303         6,504          5,231       1,273
      December               566        7,052         5,639        1,413         6,486          5,219       1,267
 
2011  March                  334        6,540         5,322        1,218         6,206          5,025       1,181
      June                   582        6,966         5,625        1,341         6,384          5,115       1,269
      September              841        7,205         5,810        1,395         6,364          5,172       1,192
      December               335        6,865         5,503        1,362         6,530          5,273       1,257
 
2012  March                  948        7,080         5,746        1,334         6,132          5,005       1,127
      June                   616        7,051         5,724        1,327         6,435          5,266       1,169
      September              252        6,881         5,571        1,310         6,629          5,430       1,199
      December               695        7,110         5,753        1,357         6,415          5,225       1,190
 
2013  March                  558        6,941         5,705        1,236         6,383          5,201       1,182
      June                   674        7,152         5,830        1,322         6,478          5,271       1,207
      September              507        7,058         5,719        1,339         6,551          5,408       1,143
      December               700        7,255         5,926        1,329         6,555          5,353       1,202
 
2014  March                  433        6,955         5,687        1,268         6,522          5,372       1,150
      June                   885        7,454         6,114        1,340         6,569          5,350       1,219
      September              553        7,241         5,912        1,329         6,688          5,504       1,184
      December             1,060        7,629         6,256        1,373         6,569          5,334       1,235
 
2015  March                  221        7,039         5,729        1,310         6,818          5,614       1,204
      June                   832        7,584         6,239        1,345         6,752          5,558       1,194
      September              445        7,335         5,975        1,360         6,890          5,680       1,210
      December               987        7,834         6,372        1,462         6,847          5,582       1,265
 
2016  March                  253        7,145         5,860        1,285         6,892          5,692       1,200
      June                   294        7,449         6,076        1,373         7,155          5,846       1,309
      September              714        7,704         6,243        1,461         6,990          5,744       1,246
      December               368        7,440         6,026        1,414         7,072          5,770       1,302
 
2017  March                  658        7,423         6,088        1,335         6,765          5,582       1,183
      June                   463        7,624         6,255        1,369         7,161          5,889       1,272
      September              -93        7,311         5,959        1,352         7,404          6,106       1,298
      December               979        7,826         6,383        1,443         6,847          5,547       1,300
 
2018  March                  740        7,406         6,071        1,335         6,666          5,526       1,140
      June                   437        7,639         6,245        1,394         7,202          5,942       1,260
 
(1) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.






Table 2. Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of employment(1), seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Percent)

                                                     Gross job gains                          Gross job losses
Year  3 months ended  Net change(2)     Total     Expanding      Opening         Total     Contracting    Closing
                                               establishments establishments            establishments establishments

2008  March                 -0.1          6.4           5.1          1.3           6.5            5.3         1.2
      June                  -0.5          6.4           5.1          1.3           6.9            5.6         1.3
      September             -0.9          6.1           4.9          1.2           7.0            5.7         1.3
      December              -1.7          6.0           4.8          1.2           7.7            6.3         1.4

2009  March                 -2.4          5.4           4.3          1.1           7.8            6.5         1.3
      June                  -1.5          6.0           4.7          1.3           7.5            6.2         1.3
      September             -0.8          6.0           4.8          1.2           6.8            5.5         1.3
      December              -0.3          6.3           5.0          1.3           6.6            5.3         1.3

2010  March                 -0.2          6.0           4.8          1.2           6.2            5.0         1.2
      June                   0.7          6.6           5.4          1.2           5.9            4.8         1.1
      September              0.2          6.3           5.1          1.2           6.1            4.9         1.2
      December               0.5          6.6           5.3          1.3           6.1            4.9         1.2

2011  March                  0.3          6.1           5.0          1.1           5.8            4.7         1.1
      June                   0.5          6.4           5.2          1.2           5.9            4.7         1.2
      September              0.8          6.7           5.4          1.3           5.9            4.8         1.1
      December               0.4          6.4           5.1          1.3           6.0            4.8         1.2

2012  March                  0.8          6.4           5.2          1.2           5.6            4.6         1.0
      June                   0.5          6.4           5.2          1.2           5.9            4.8         1.1
      September              0.2          6.2           5.0          1.2           6.0            4.9         1.1
      December               0.6          6.4           5.2          1.2           5.8            4.7         1.1

2013  March                  0.5          6.2           5.1          1.1           5.7            4.6         1.1
      June                   0.6          6.4           5.2          1.2           5.8            4.7         1.1
      September              0.5          6.3           5.1          1.2           5.8            4.8         1.0
      December               0.6          6.4           5.2          1.2           5.8            4.7         1.1

2014  March                  0.4          6.1           5.0          1.1           5.7            4.7         1.0
      June                   0.7          6.5           5.3          1.2           5.8            4.7         1.1
      September              0.4          6.2           5.1          1.1           5.8            4.8         1.0
      December               0.9          6.6           5.4          1.2           5.7            4.6         1.1

2015  March                  0.2          6.0           4.9          1.1           5.8            4.8         1.0
      June                   0.7          6.4           5.3          1.1           5.7            4.7         1.0
      September              0.5          6.3           5.1          1.2           5.8            4.8         1.0
      December               0.8          6.6           5.4          1.2           5.8            4.7         1.1

2016  March                  0.2          6.0           4.9          1.1           5.8            4.8         1.0
      June                   0.2          6.2           5.1          1.1           6.0            4.9         1.1
      September              0.6          6.4           5.2          1.2           5.8            4.8         1.0
      December               0.3          6.2           5.0          1.2           5.9            4.8         1.1

2017  March                  0.5          6.1           5.0          1.1           5.6            4.6         1.0
      June                   0.4          6.2           5.1          1.1           5.8            4.8         1.0
      September             -0.1          6.0           4.9          1.1           6.1            5.0         1.1
      December               0.8          6.4           5.2          1.2           5.6            4.5         1.1
 
2018  March                  0.6          6.0           4.9          1.1           5.4            4.5         0.9
      June                   0.3          6.1           5.0          1.1           5.8            4.8         1.0

(1) The rates measure gross job gains and job losses as a percentage of the average of the previous and current quarter
    employment levels.

(2) Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses.






Table 3. Private sector gross job gains and losses by industry, seasonally adjusted

                                   Gross job gains and job losses              Gross job gains and job losses
                                          (in thousands)                         as a percent of employment

    Category                              3 months ended                               3 months ended

                                   June     Sept.    Dec.     Mar.     June    June    Sept.   Dec.    Mar.    June
                                   2017     2017     2017     2018     2018    2017    2017    2017    2018    2018
Total private(1)

Gross job gains                   7,624    7,311    7,826    7,406    7,639     6.2     6.0     6.4     6.0     6.1
 At expanding establishments      6,255    5,959    6,383    6,071    6,245     5.1     4.9     5.2     4.9     5.0
 At opening establishments        1,369    1,352    1,443    1,335    1,394     1.1     1.1     1.2     1.1     1.1
Gross job losses                  7,161    7,404    6,847    6,666    7,202     5.8     6.1     5.6     5.4     5.8
 At contracting establishments    5,889    6,106    5,547    5,526    5,942     4.8     5.0     4.5     4.5     4.8
 At closing establishments        1,272    1,298    1,300    1,140    1,260     1.0     1.1     1.1     0.9     1.0
Net employment change               463      -93      979      740      437     0.4    -0.1     0.8     0.6     0.3

Goods-producing

Gross job gains                   1,400    1,271    1,435    1,390    1,398     6.6     6.0     6.8     6.4     6.4
 At expanding establishments      1,205    1,083    1,226    1,200    1,208     5.7     5.1     5.8     5.5     5.5
 At opening establishments          195      188      209      190      190     0.9     0.9     1.0     0.9     0.9
Gross job losses                  1,295    1,331    1,233    1,174    1,256     6.0     6.3     5.8     5.4     5.7
 At contracting establishments    1,094    1,129    1,039      997    1,058     5.1     5.3     4.9     4.6     4.8
 At closing establishments          201      202      194      177      198     0.9     1.0     0.9     0.8     0.9
Net employment change               105      -60      202      216      142     0.6    -0.3     1.0     1.0     0.7

Natural resources and mining

Gross job gains                     270      253      256      254      275    14.4    13.6    13.5    13.2    14.2
 At expanding establishments        237      220      223      224      241    12.6    11.8    11.8    11.6    12.4
 At opening establishments           33       33       33       30       34     1.8     1.8     1.7     1.6     1.8
Gross job losses                    263      243      258      236      247    14.0    13.0    13.6    12.3    12.8
 At contracting establishments      225      212      227      206      213    12.0    11.3    12.0    10.7    11.0
 At closing establishments           38       31       31       30       34     2.0     1.7     1.6     1.6     1.8
Net employment change                 7       10       -2       18       28     0.4     0.6    -0.1     0.9     1.4

Construction

Gross job gains                     686      622      719      716      685     9.9     9.0    10.4    10.0     9.5
 At expanding establishments        563      504      582      590      563     8.1     7.3     8.4     8.2     7.8
 At opening establishments          123      118      137      126      122     1.8     1.7     2.0     1.8     1.7
Gross job losses                    641      663      608      584      634     9.3     9.6     8.8     8.1     8.7
 At contracting establishments      525      541      491      476      515     7.6     7.8     7.1     6.6     7.1
 At closing establishments          116      122      117      108      119     1.7     1.8     1.7     1.5     1.6
Net employment change                45      -41      111      132       51     0.6    -0.6     1.6     1.9     0.8

Manufacturing

Gross job gains                     444      396      460      420      438     3.6     3.2     3.7     3.4     3.5
 At expanding establishments        405      359      421      386      404     3.3     2.9     3.4     3.1     3.2
 At opening establishments           39       37       39       34       34     0.3     0.3     0.3     0.3     0.3
Gross job losses                    391      425      367      354      375     3.2     3.4     3.0     2.8     3.0
 At contracting establishments      344      376      321      315      330     2.8     3.0     2.6     2.5     2.6
 At closing establishments           47       49       46       39       45     0.4     0.4     0.4     0.3     0.4
Net employment change                53      -29       93       66       63     0.4    -0.2     0.7     0.6     0.5

Service-providing(1)

Gross job gains                   6,224    6,040    6,391    6,016    6,241     6.2     6.0     6.3     5.9     6.1
 At expanding establishments      5,050    4,876    5,157    4,871    5,037     5.0     4.8     5.1     4.8     4.9
 At opening establishments        1,174    1,164    1,234    1,145    1,204     1.2     1.2     1.2     1.1     1.2
Gross job losses                  5,866    6,073    5,614    5,492    5,946     5.9     6.0     5.5     5.3     5.8
 At contracting establishments    4,795    4,977    4,508    4,529    4,884     4.8     4.9     4.4     4.4     4.8
 At closing establishments        1,071    1,096    1,106      963    1,062     1.1     1.1     1.1     0.9     1.0
Net employment change               358      -33      777      524      295     0.3     0.0     0.8     0.6     0.3

Wholesale trade

Gross job gains                     284      270      280      263      273     4.8     4.6     4.7     4.5     4.7
 At expanding establishments        236      225      233      220      229     4.0     3.8     3.9     3.8     3.9
 At opening establishments           48       45       47       43       44     0.8     0.8     0.8     0.7     0.8
Gross job losses                    248      267      249      243      250     4.2     4.5     4.2     4.2     4.3
 At contracting establishments      195      213      193      192      196     3.3     3.6     3.3     3.3     3.4
 At closing establishments           53       54       56       51       54     0.9     0.9     0.9     0.9     0.9
Net employment change                36        3       31       20       23     0.6     0.1     0.5     0.3     0.4

Retail trade

Gross job gains                     930      891      907      919      902     5.8     5.6     5.7     5.8     5.6
 At expanding establishments        802      764      793      811      772     5.0     4.8     5.0     5.1     4.8
 At opening establishments          128      127      114      108      130     0.8     0.8     0.7     0.7     0.8
Gross job losses                    936      986      898      848      955     5.9     6.2     5.7     5.3     6.0
 At contracting establishments      807      860      783      748      837     5.1     5.4     5.0     4.7     5.3
 At closing establishments          129      126      115      100      118     0.8     0.8     0.7     0.6     0.7
Net employment change                -6      -95        9       71      -53    -0.1    -0.6     0.0     0.5    -0.4

Transportation and warehousing

Gross job gains                     271      307      390      257      284     5.6     6.2     7.6     4.9     5.5
 At expanding establishments        234      266      343      224      245     4.8     5.4     6.7     4.3     4.7
 At opening establishments           37       41       47       33       39     0.8     0.8     0.9     0.6     0.8
Gross job losses                    254      232      231      327      252     5.2     4.6     4.5     6.3     4.9
 At contracting establishments      216      195      190      296      217     4.4     3.9     3.7     5.7     4.2
 At closing establishments           38       37       41       31       35     0.8     0.7     0.8     0.6     0.7
Net employment change                17       75      159      -70       32     0.4     1.6     3.1    -1.4     0.6

Utilities

Gross job gains                      12       11       12       11       13     2.2     2.0     2.2     2.0     2.4
 At expanding establishments         11       10       11       10       11     2.0     1.8     2.0     1.8     2.0
 At opening establishments            1        1        1        1        2     0.2     0.2     0.2     0.2     0.4
Gross job losses                     13       13       12       11       15     2.4     2.4     2.2     2.0     2.7
 At contracting establishments       12       12       10       10       13     2.2     2.2     1.8     1.8     2.3
 At closing establishments            1        1        2        1        2     0.2     0.2     0.4     0.2     0.4
Net employment change                -1       -2        0        0       -2    -0.2    -0.4     0.0     0.0    -0.3

Information

Gross job gains                     158      157      147      154      158     5.6     5.6     5.3     5.5     5.6
 At expanding establishments        132      125      120      131      133     4.7     4.5     4.3     4.7     4.7
 At opening establishments           26       32       27       23       25     0.9     1.1     1.0     0.8     0.9
Gross job losses                    175      155      148      143      167     6.2     5.6     5.3     5.1     5.9
 At contracting establishments      149      130      121      120      139     5.3     4.7     4.3     4.3     4.9
 At closing establishments           26       25       27       23       28     0.9     0.9     1.0     0.8     1.0
Net employment change               -17        2       -1       11       -9    -0.6     0.0     0.0     0.4    -0.3

Financial activities

Gross job gains                     394      374      389      351      389     4.9     4.6     4.8     4.3     4.8
 At expanding establishments        317      298      301      281      311     3.9     3.7     3.7     3.4     3.8
 At opening establishments           77       76       88       70       78     1.0     0.9     1.1     0.9     1.0
Gross job losses                    346      366      370      338      354     4.3     4.5     4.6     4.1     4.4
 At contracting establishments      269      286      283      262      275     3.3     3.5     3.5     3.2     3.4
 At closing establishments           77       80       87       76       79     1.0     1.0     1.1     0.9     1.0
Net employment change                48        8       19       13       35     0.6     0.1     0.2     0.2     0.4

Professional and business services

Gross job gains                   1,451    1,387    1,499    1,324    1,456     7.2     6.8     7.3     6.4     7.0
 At expanding establishments      1,190    1,129    1,215    1,088    1,193     5.9     5.5     5.9     5.3     5.7
 At opening establishments          261      258      284      236      263     1.3     1.3     1.4     1.1     1.3
Gross job losses                  1,338    1,384    1,315    1,255    1,354     6.6     6.8     6.4     6.1     6.5
 At contracting establishments    1,075    1,114    1,029    1,016    1,086     5.3     5.5     5.0     4.9     5.2
 At closing establishments          263      270      286      239      268     1.3     1.3     1.4     1.2     1.3
Net employment change               113        3      184       69      102     0.6     0.0     0.9     0.3     0.5

Education and health services

Gross job gains                     994      985      987      971    1,005     4.5     4.5     4.4     4.4     4.4
 At expanding establishments        815      813      805      799      814     3.7     3.7     3.6     3.6     3.6
 At opening establishments          179      172      182      172      191     0.8     0.8     0.8     0.8     0.8
Gross job losses                    902      908      863      830      933     4.1     4.1     3.9     3.7     4.2
 At contracting establishments      730      731      681      668      758     3.3     3.3     3.1     3.0     3.4
 At closing establishments          172      177      182      162      175     0.8     0.8     0.8     0.7     0.8
Net employment change                92       77      124      141       72     0.4     0.4     0.5     0.7     0.2

Leisure and hospitality

Gross job gains                   1,346    1,302    1,391    1,331    1,338     8.4     8.2     8.8     8.2     8.2
 At expanding establishments      1,057    1,011    1,093    1,058    1,061     6.6     6.4     6.9     6.5     6.5
 At opening establishments          289      291      298      273      277     1.8     1.8     1.9     1.7     1.7
Gross job losses                  1,334    1,423    1,221    1,183    1,351     8.4     9.0     7.6     7.3     8.4
 At contracting establishments    1,110    1,187      997      991    1,131     7.0     7.5     6.2     6.1     7.0
 At closing establishments          224      236      224      192      220     1.4     1.5     1.4     1.2     1.4
Net employment change                12     -121      170      148      -13     0.0    -0.8     1.2     0.9    -0.2

Other services

Gross job gains                     310      284      295      287      314     7.5     6.8     7.1     6.9     7.5
 At expanding establishments        243      222      232      228      250     5.9     5.3     5.6     5.5     6.0
 At opening establishments           67       62       63       59       64     1.6     1.5     1.5     1.4     1.5
Gross job losses                    284      305      275      275      283     6.8     7.4     6.6     6.6     6.8
 At contracting establishments      222      240      212      215      221     5.3     5.8     5.1     5.2     5.3
 At closing establishments           62       65       63       60       62     1.5     1.6     1.5     1.4     1.5
Net employment change                26      -21       20       12       31     0.7    -0.6     0.5     0.3     0.7

(1) Includes unclassified sector, not shown separately.






Table 4. Private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

(In thousands)

                   Total private by firm(1)          Firm size 1 - 49 employees       Firm size 50 - 249 employees     Firm size 250 or more employees
Year  3 months      Net           Gross job           Net          Gross job           Net          Gross job           Net          Gross job
        ended      change       gains   losses       change      gains   losses       change      gains   losses       change      gains   losses

2008  March           -274      5,831    6,105        -152       3,235    3,387         -11       1,079    1,090        -111       1,517    1,628
      June            -548      5,850    6,398        -287       3,174    3,461         -44       1,090    1,134        -217       1,586    1,803
      September       -956      5,532    6,488        -343       3,051    3,394        -140       1,020    1,160        -473       1,461    1,934
      December      -1,886      5,338    7,224        -689       2,910    3,599        -375         947    1,322        -822       1,481    2,303

2009  March         -2,638      4,617    7,255        -983       2,721    3,704        -616         810    1,426      -1,039       1,086    2,125
      June          -1,763      5,169    6,932        -474       2,946    3,420        -281         950    1,231      -1,008       1,273    2,281
      September       -906      5,164    6,070        -372       2,826    3,198        -110         932    1,042        -424       1,406    1,830
      December        -317      5,403    5,720        -159       2,940    3,099         -45         962    1,007        -113       1,501    1,614

2010  March           -234      5,115    5,349        -195       2,863    3,058          -2         914      916         -37       1,338    1,375
      June             664      5,805    5,141         235       3,093    2,858         204       1,071      867         225       1,641    1,416
      September        226      5,525    5,299          26       2,946    2,920          87         998      911         113       1,581    1,468
      December         502      5,781    5,279          92       3,051    2,959          92       1,034      942         318       1,696    1,378

2011  March            340      5,375    5,035          99       2,983    2,884         122         971      849         119       1,421    1,302
      June             537      5,746    5,209         190       3,073    2,883         169       1,063      894         178       1,610    1,432
      September        852      5,974    5,122         272       3,137    2,865         171       1,066      895         409       1,771    1,362
      December         297      5,585    5,288          45       2,970    2,925          44         981      937         208       1,634    1,426
 
2012  March            972      5,904    4,932         388       3,173    2,785         220       1,054      834         364       1,677    1,313
      June             612      5,828    5,216         174       3,039    2,865         158       1,074      916         280       1,715    1,435
      September        226      5,581    5,355          55       2,963    2,908          54       1,006      952         117       1,612    1,495
      December         637      5,779    5,142         180       3,025    2,845          94       1,014      920         363       1,740    1,377

2013  March            582      5,743    5,161         212       3,071    2,859         156       1,029      873         214       1,643    1,429
      June             650      5,906    5,256         226       3,085    2,859         135       1,071      936         289       1,750    1,461
      September        473      5,764    5,291         225       3,063    2,838          69       1,021      952         179       1,680    1,501
      December         631      5,886    5,255         122       3,021    2,899         105       1,034      929         404       1,831    1,427

2014  March            455      5,666    5,211         240       3,073    2,833         152       1,035      883          63       1,558    1,495
      June             887      6,136    5,249         300       3,179    2,879         215       1,121      906         372       1,836    1,464
      September        536      5,860    5,324         185       3,060    2,875         110       1,063      953         241       1,737    1,496
      December         967      6,158    5,191         217       3,107    2,890         154       1,086      932         596       1,965    1,369

2015  March            230      5,665    5,435         172       3,097    2,925          77       1,022      945         -19       1,546    1,565
      June             833      6,252    5,419         318       3,199    2,881         189       1,133      944         326       1,920    1,594
      September        417      5,899    5,482         133       3,048    2,915          65       1,041      976         219       1,810    1,591
      December         879      6,267    5,388         242       3,179    2,937          98       1,077      979         539       2,011    1,472

2016  March            265      5,746    5,481         213       3,121    2,908          58       1,016      958          -6       1,609    1,615
      June             302      6,046    5,744          66       3,126    3,060         115       1,106      991         121       1,814    1,693
      September        701      6,245    5,544         164       3,143    2,979          88       1,084      996         449       2,018    1,569
      December         302      5,912    5,610          76       3,070    2,994          50       1,033      983         176       1,809    1,633

2017  March            674      5,992    5,318         367       3,241    2,874         189       1,077      888         118       1,674    1,556
      June             513      6,198    5,685         143       3,162    3,019         146       1,128      982         224       1,908    1,684
      September       -153      5,812    5,965        -136       2,985    3,121         -60       1,009    1,069          43       1,818    1,775
      December         885      6,224    5,339         245       3,194    2,949         161       1,092      931         479       1,938    1,459

2018  March            779      6,021    5,242         334       3,182    2,848         167       1,061      894         278       1,778    1,500
      June             458      6,169    5,711         137       3,171    3,034         154       1,132      978         167       1,866    1,699

(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower than total gross job gains and gross job losses by establishment, as some 
    establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.

NOTE: Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses. Net change totals for the firm-level data differ from 
the establishment-level data due to independent seasonal adjustment. The unit of analysis section in the technical note provides additional detail. 
See www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmfirmsize.htm for more detailed firm size class data.






Table 5. Components of private sector gross job gains and losses by firm size, seasonally adjusted

                                   Gross job gains and job losses              Gross job gains and job losses
                                          (in thousands)                         as a percent of employment

    Category                              3 months ended                               3 months ended

                                   June     Sept.    Dec.     Mar.     June    June    Sept.   Dec.    Mar.    June
                                   2017     2017     2017     2018     2018    2017    2017    2017    2018    2018
Total private by firm(1)

Gross job gains                   6,198    5,812    6,224    6,021    6,169     5.0     4.7     5.1     4.9     4.9
 At expanding firms               5,291    4,929    5,264    5,078    5,265     4.3     4.0     4.3     4.1     4.2
 At opening firms                   907      883      960      943      904     0.7     0.7     0.8     0.8     0.7

Gross job losses                  5,685    5,965    5,339    5,242    5,711     4.7     4.9     4.3     4.3     4.6
 At contracting firms             4,832    5,078    4,460    4,433    4,851     4.0     4.2     3.6     3.6     3.9
 At closing firms                   853      887      879      809      860     0.7     0.7     0.7     0.7     0.7

Net employment change               513     -153      885      779      458     0.3    -0.2     0.8     0.6     0.3


Firm size 1 to 49 employees

Gross job gains                   3,162    2,985    3,194    3,182    3,171     9.2     8.8     9.4     9.3     9.2
 At expanding firms               2,296    2,142    2,270    2,283    2,309     6.7     6.3     6.7     6.7     6.7
 At opening firms                   866      843      924      899      862     2.5     2.5     2.7     2.6     2.5

Gross job losses                  3,019    3,121    2,949    2,848    3,034     8.9     9.2     8.7     8.3     8.8
 At contracting firms             2,197    2,271    2,107    2,064    2,212     6.5     6.7     6.2     6.0     6.4
 At closing firms                   822      850      842      784      822     2.4     2.5     2.5     2.3     2.4

Net employment change               143     -136      245      334      137     0.3    -0.4     0.7     1.0     0.4


Firm size 50 to 249 employees

Gross job gains                   1,128    1,009    1,092    1,061    1,132     5.1     4.5     4.9     4.7     5.1
 At expanding firms               1,091      976    1,060    1,032    1,096     4.9     4.4     4.8     4.6     4.9
 At opening firms                    37       33       32       29       36     0.2     0.1     0.1     0.1     0.2

Gross job losses                    982    1,069      931      894      978     4.4     4.8     4.2     4.0     4.4
 At contracting firms               955    1,038      898      871      950     4.3     4.7     4.1     3.9     4.3
 At closing firms                    27       31       33       23       28     0.1     0.1     0.1     0.1     0.1

Net employment change               146      -60      161      167      154     0.7    -0.3     0.7     0.7     0.7


Firm size 250 or more employees

Gross job gains                   1,908    1,818    1,938    1,778    1,866     2.9     2.7     2.9     2.6     2.7
 At expanding firms               1,904    1,811    1,934    1,763    1,860     2.9     2.7     2.9     2.6     2.7
 At opening firms                     4        7        4       15        6     0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0

Gross job losses                  1,684    1,775    1,459    1,500    1,699     2.5     2.7     2.2     2.2     2.5
 At contracting firms             1,680    1,769    1,455    1,498    1,689     2.5     2.7     2.2     2.2     2.5
 At closing firms                     4        6        4        2       10     0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0

Net employment change               224       43      479      278      167     0.4     0.0     0.7     0.4     0.2

(1) Total gross job gains and gross job losses by firm are lower than total gross job gains and gross job losses by
    establishment, as some establishment gains and losses within a firm are offset during the aggregation process.

NOTE: Net change is the difference between total gross job gains and total gross job losses. Net change totals for 
the firm-level data differ from the establishment-level data due to independent seasonal adjustment. The unit of 
analysis section in the technical note provides additional detail. See www.bls.gov/bdm/bdmfirmsize.htm for more 
detailed firm size class data.






Table 6. Private sector gross job gains and losses by state, seasonally adjusted

                                           Gross job gains                                         Gross job losses
State                                      3 months ended                                          3 months ended

                           June       Sept.      Dec.       Mar.       June        June       Sept.      Dec.       Mar.       June
                           2017       2017       2017       2018       2018        2017       2017       2017       2018       2018

United States(1)....  7,624,000  7,311,000  7,826,000  7,406,000  7,639,000   7,161,000  7,404,000  6,847,000  6,666,000  7,202,000

Alabama.............     87,628     94,446     94,822     95,408     92,414      89,429     91,407     86,247     84,599     91,229
Alaska..............     26,852     21,397     23,753     24,212     26,957      24,550     26,684     25,045     21,672     26,327
Arizona.............    145,184    155,502    149,164    143,329    144,858     133,759    123,614    126,322    127,123    142,484
Arkansas............     53,955     57,887     61,837     54,713     50,184      57,494     55,030     51,164     51,129     57,117
California..........  1,011,827    944,355  1,006,720    943,168    994,036     946,159    912,206    879,820    873,921    943,723
Colorado............    155,332    147,249    151,305    152,077    153,411     138,368    141,723    135,072    133,458    138,208
Connecticut.........     82,431     76,526     76,225     73,726     82,914      75,429     83,269     75,144     74,835     72,541
Delaware............     25,363     24,438     26,545     27,296     24,983      25,080     25,225     24,302     22,600     23,141
District of Columbia     29,471     28,320     30,487     31,638     29,663      27,883     26,722     25,823     25,107     29,569
Florida.............    487,933    423,467    610,728    461,699    490,156     453,918    556,886    396,998    415,301    462,786

Georgia.............    230,899    229,356    256,202    243,572    236,252     225,148    226,960    206,907    211,926    240,874
Hawaii..............     27,783     29,071     27,322     26,880     28,019      28,038     27,155     25,437     26,108     29,625
Idaho...............     43,239     39,562     44,087     47,380     44,433      39,161     39,690     38,758     35,993     41,092
Illinois............    296,909    291,827    306,642    297,390    291,226     285,523    309,933    273,761    263,419    287,764
Indiana.............    148,425    143,899    152,730    150,823    146,171     144,525    146,250    132,131    135,050    147,061
Iowa................     73,924     70,270     77,044     72,763     74,977      75,216     74,090     69,393     68,476     70,344
Kansas..............     62,158     70,776     67,371     59,291     64,974      73,961     63,746     59,074     62,541     63,272
Kentucky............     95,753     94,074     96,637     97,348     94,775      94,600     93,321     88,557     93,418     89,163
Louisiana...........     99,314     98,944     99,534    104,399     97,557     104,220     97,205     95,862     93,651    103,617
Maine...............     39,440     33,579     36,637     37,325     42,263      34,978     38,391     34,260     36,037     36,791

Maryland............    137,314    137,981    135,910    136,190    131,382     132,372    133,326    136,873    124,625    127,460
Massachusetts.......    191,505    170,033    179,340    170,940    191,050     162,662    175,714    170,518    161,219    169,458
Michigan............    214,731    197,425    209,924    215,009    212,862     196,603    221,611    201,345    172,727    194,576
Minnesota...........    140,365    131,527    142,622    133,031    143,233     130,303    141,017    137,459    124,520    130,411
Mississippi.........     52,756     51,886     57,247     49,047     51,181      53,369     52,345     48,680     52,670     53,851
Missouri............    134,103    140,341    134,191    128,761    136,175     133,913    139,943    129,197    122,569    135,227
Montana.............     29,677     26,820     31,819     29,814     30,470      29,181     29,704     27,823     26,996     29,587
Nebraska............     45,194     47,837     50,496     46,119     47,811      49,129     47,865     44,716     44,422     47,285
Nevada..............     72,388     73,746     77,583     77,239     74,203      68,792     68,376     61,853     64,015     70,292
New Hampshire.......     37,680     31,569     38,049     34,737     38,301      34,282     37,293     33,715     33,948     35,786

New Jersey..........    230,234    207,984    222,652    195,067    226,840     191,941    215,560    198,679    202,204    197,622
New Mexico..........     42,742     41,437     40,895     40,492     41,958      40,518     40,213     38,285     35,382     39,635
New York............    509,041    494,576    486,419    487,774    501,866     457,553    486,906    458,703    446,548    463,111
North Carolina......    228,081    217,327    228,877    227,451    228,600     221,870    218,183    201,030    190,130    202,562
North Dakota........     23,247     23,228     23,364     24,123     23,378      23,818     23,107     23,093     21,767     21,525
Ohio................    269,114    243,678    264,245    257,964    260,528     254,723    262,622    241,351    233,979    250,063
Oklahoma............     82,735     83,769     82,246     78,771     81,185      74,918     74,871     74,837     70,899     82,922
Oregon..............    105,170    103,655    108,362    126,218    101,845      96,792    100,748     95,674     91,805    101,444
Pennsylvania........    281,115    280,427    280,828    269,034    275,982     264,277    264,778    254,044    253,319    266,297
Rhode Island........     27,373     25,029     27,510     26,816     26,413      24,811     26,569     25,380     25,611     25,793

South Carolina......    102,603     96,088    117,366    101,452    130,498     102,112    104,581     88,279     80,164    113,086
South Dakota........     21,835     19,999     22,366     22,660     21,354      21,781     20,660     20,135     20,837     21,540
Tennessee...........    136,862    135,735    148,658    128,609    140,227     130,049    131,055    124,382    122,183    132,038
Texas...............    590,669    600,634    647,693    594,270    605,354     543,780    583,688    543,784    524,628    542,770
Utah................     81,928     83,405     85,107     91,524     85,608      75,631     76,415     70,867     73,492     79,338
Vermont.............     20,125     16,838     18,850     16,527     18,573      17,580     20,048     16,838     18,162     18,737
Virginia............    197,726    184,675    196,457    184,748    193,648     185,613    193,851    171,383    167,145    183,646
Washington..........    194,267    174,549    188,715    201,454    204,773     170,639    174,372    163,741    160,868    176,916
West Virginia.......     34,901     36,996     34,506     37,645     37,803      35,528     34,633     33,250     32,156     35,644
Wisconsin...........    140,042    123,582    137,630    138,695    137,077     136,344    140,499    121,738    116,842    137,348

Wyoming.............     17,444     17,775     17,919     17,379     17,108      18,518     16,180     17,229     16,363     17,239
Puerto Rico.........     35,972     29,774     46,357     55,031     52,532      36,503     45,400     76,992     43,925     40,796
Virgin Islands......      1,856      1,111      2,218      2,702      2,815       1,451      3,103      6,800      3,775      1,929

(1) The sum of the states will not necessarily add to the U.S. total because of the independent seasonal adjustment of each state.

NOTE: Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.

Table 7. Private sector gross job gains and losses, as a percent of total employment by state, seasonally adjusted

                        Gross job gains as a percent of employment    Gross job losses as a percent of employment
State                               3 months ended                                3 months ended

                        June    Sept.   Dec.    Mar.    June          June    Sept.   Dec.    Mar.    June
                        2017    2017    2017    2018    2018          2017    2017    2017    2018    2018

United States.......     6.2     6.0     6.4     6.0     6.1           5.8     6.1     5.6     5.4     5.8

Alabama.............     5.6     6.0     6.0     6.0     5.8           5.6     5.8     5.4     5.3     5.7
Alaska..............    10.9     8.7     9.7     9.8    10.9           9.9    10.8    10.2     8.8    10.7
Arizona.............     6.2     6.6     6.3     6.0     6.0           5.7     5.2     5.3     5.3     5.9
Arkansas............     5.4     5.8     6.1     5.4     5.0           5.7     5.5     5.1     5.0     5.6
California..........     6.9     6.5     6.9     6.4     6.7           6.5     6.3     6.0     5.9     6.3
Colorado............     7.0     6.7     6.8     6.8     6.8           6.3     6.5     6.1     6.0     6.1
Connecticut.........     5.7     5.4     5.3     5.1     5.8           5.2     5.8     5.2     5.2     5.0
Delaware............     6.7     6.4     7.0     7.1     6.5           6.6     6.6     6.4     5.9     6.0
District of Columbia     5.7     5.4     5.8     6.0     5.6           5.4     5.2     5.0     4.7     5.5
Florida.............     6.6     5.8     8.2     6.1     6.5           6.1     7.5     5.3     5.5     6.1

Georgia.............     6.2     6.2     6.9     6.5     6.2           6.1     6.1     5.6     5.6     6.4
Hawaii..............     5.2     5.4     5.1     5.0     5.2           5.3     5.1     4.7     4.8     5.5
Idaho...............     7.3     6.7     7.4     7.9     7.3           6.6     6.8     6.6     5.9     6.7
Illinois............     5.7     5.6     6.0     5.7     5.6           5.6     6.0     5.3     5.1     5.5
Indiana.............     5.7     5.4     5.7     5.6     5.4           5.5     5.6     5.0     5.1     5.5
Iowa................     5.7     5.5     5.9     5.5     5.7           5.8     5.7     5.3     5.3     5.4
Kansas..............     5.5     6.3     5.9     5.2     5.7           6.5     5.7     5.2     5.5     5.6
Kentucky............     6.1     6.0     6.1     6.2     5.9           6.0     6.0     5.6     5.9     5.6
Louisiana...........     6.3     6.2     6.2     6.5     6.1           6.6     6.1     6.0     5.8     6.5
Maine...............     7.7     6.5     7.2     7.2     8.1           6.8     7.5     6.6     7.0     7.1

Maryland............     6.4     6.3     6.2     6.3     6.0           6.1     6.2     6.3     5.7     5.8
Massachusetts.......     6.1     5.4     5.7     5.4     6.1           5.3     5.6     5.4     5.2     5.4
Michigan............     5.8     5.3     5.7     5.7     5.6           5.3     6.0     5.4     4.6     5.1
Minnesota...........     5.7     5.3     5.8     5.3     5.8           5.3     5.7     5.5     5.0     5.3
Mississippi.........     5.9     5.9     6.3     5.5     5.7           6.0     5.9     5.4     5.8     6.0
Missouri............     5.6     5.9     5.7     5.4     5.7           5.6     5.9     5.5     5.2     5.7
Montana.............     7.9     7.2     8.5     7.8     8.0           7.7     7.9     7.4     7.1     7.8
Nebraska............     5.5     5.9     6.2     5.6     5.9           6.1     5.9     5.5     5.5     5.8
Nevada..............     6.2     6.2     6.6     6.5     6.1           5.9     5.8     5.2     5.4     5.8
New Hampshire.......     6.6     5.5     6.7     6.1     6.7           6.0     6.6     5.9     5.9     6.3

New Jersey..........     6.7     6.0     6.4     5.6     6.5           5.6     6.3     5.8     5.8     5.7
New Mexico..........     6.8     6.6     6.5     6.3     6.5           6.4     6.3     6.1     5.5     6.2
New York............     6.4     6.3     6.2     6.2     6.3           5.8     6.1     5.8     5.6     5.8
North Carolina......     6.3     6.0     6.3     6.2     6.1           6.2     6.0     5.5     5.2     5.5
North Dakota........     6.8     6.7     6.8     7.0     6.7           6.9     6.7     6.8     6.3     6.2
Ohio................     5.8     5.3     5.7     5.5     5.6           5.5     5.7     5.2     5.0     5.4
Oklahoma............     6.6     6.6     6.4     6.1     6.3           6.0     6.0     5.8     5.5     6.5
Oregon..............     6.7     6.6     6.8     7.8     6.2           6.1     6.4     6.0     5.6     6.2
Pennsylvania........     5.5     5.5     5.5     5.2     5.3           5.2     5.2     5.0     4.9     5.1
Rhode Island........     6.5     6.0     6.6     6.3     6.3           5.9     6.3     6.0     6.1     6.1

South Carolina......     6.1     5.8     7.0     5.9     7.5           6.1     6.2     5.3     4.7     6.5
South Dakota........     6.2     5.8     6.4     6.4     6.1           6.2     5.9     5.7     5.9     6.1
Tennessee...........     5.5     5.4     5.9     5.0     5.5           5.2     5.2     4.9     4.8     5.1
Texas...............     5.9     5.9     6.4     5.8     5.9           5.4     5.8     5.3     5.1     5.2
Utah................     6.8     7.0     7.0     7.4     6.9           6.3     6.3     5.9     6.0     6.3
Vermont.............     7.9     6.5     7.4     6.4     7.2           6.8     7.8     6.5     7.0     7.3
Virginia............     6.4     5.9     6.3     5.8     6.1           5.9     6.2     5.5     5.2     5.8
Washington..........     7.1     6.4     6.9     7.2     7.3           6.2     6.4     6.0     5.7     6.3
West Virginia.......     6.4     6.7     6.3     6.8     6.8           6.5     6.3     6.1     5.8     6.4
Wisconsin...........     5.6     5.0     5.6     5.6     5.4           5.5     5.7     5.0     4.7     5.5

Wyoming.............     8.6     8.7     8.7     8.4     8.2           9.1     7.9     8.4     8.0     8.3
Puerto Rico.........     5.4     4.5     7.1     8.4     8.0           5.4     6.8    11.8     6.8     6.2
Virgin Islands......     6.7     4.2     9.2    12.0    12.5           5.3    11.6    28.2    16.8     8.6

NOTE: Totals for the United States do not include data for Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands.






Table 8. Private sector establishment births and deaths, seasonally adjusted

Total private

(Levels in thousands)

                           Number of Establishments                           Employment
                             Births              Deaths(1)            Births              Deaths
Year  3 months ended     Level     Rate(2)   Level     Rate       Level     Rate      Level     Rate

2008  March                226      3.1        224      3.1         919      0.8        832      0.7
      June                 221      3.0        238      3.3         876      0.8        913      0.8
      September            216      3.0        233      3.2         849      0.8        881      0.8
      December             211      2.9        253      3.5         819      0.7        951      0.9

2009  March                197      2.7        247      3.4         738      0.7        869      0.8
      June                 201      2.8        238      3.3         767      0.7        837      0.8
      September            192      2.7        227      3.2         725      0.7        793      0.7
      December             202      2.8        218      3.1         728      0.7        749      0.7

2010  March                193      2.7        211      3.0         706      0.7        687      0.7
      June                 193      2.7        202      2.9         730      0.7        665      0.6
      September            207      2.9        204      2.9         754      0.7        701      0.7
      December             216      3.0        201      2.8         805      0.8        700      0.7

2011  March                204      2.9        200      2.8         715      0.7        632      0.6
      June                 210      2.9        205      2.9         767      0.7        689      0.6
      September            206      2.9        196      2.7         794      0.7        675      0.6
      December             214      3.0        198      2.8         800      0.7        700      0.6

2012  March                236      3.3        188      2.6         787      0.7        614      0.6
      June                 217      3.0        194      2.7         799      0.7        673      0.6
      September            210      2.9        196      2.7         804      0.7        692      0.6
      December             218      3.0        183      2.5         809      0.7        673      0.6

2013  March                205      2.8        193      2.6         748      0.7        648      0.6
      June                 222      3.0        215      2.9         789      0.7        695      0.6
      September            219      2.9        195      2.6         818      0.7        678      0.6
      December             215      2.9        187      2.5         803      0.7        670      0.6

2014  March                220      2.9        189      2.5         781      0.7        635      0.6
      June                 221      2.9        205      2.7         805      0.7        716      0.6
      September            225      3.0        199      2.6         827      0.7        704      0.6
      December             224      2.9        197      2.6         839      0.7        707      0.6

2015  March                234      3.1        206      2.7         814      0.7        694      0.6
      June                 234      3.1        212      2.8         839      0.7        732      0.6
      September            242      3.1        207      2.7         880      0.7        704      0.6
      December             247      3.2        208      2.7         893      0.8        733      0.6

2016  March                236      3.0        203      2.6         786      0.7        663      0.6
      June                 242      3.1        214      2.7         839      0.7        723      0.6
      September            239      3.0        215      2.7         872      0.7        747      0.6
      December             239      3.0        217      2.8         869      0.7        729      0.6

2017  March                241      3.0        203      2.6         800      0.7        659      0.5
      June                 240      3.0        225      2.8         851      0.7        760      0.6
      September            241      3.0        226      2.8         851      0.7        763      0.6
      December             246      3.1        N/A      N/A         853      0.7        N/A      N/A

2018  March                250      3.1        N/A      N/A         817      0.7        N/A      N/A
      June                 263      3.2        N/A      N/A         878      0.7        N/A      N/A

(1) Values for deaths are not available for the most recent three quarters by definition. See the 
    Technical Note for more information.

(2) The rates measure births and deaths as a percentage of the average of the previous and current 
    quarter employment levels or total number of establishments.






Last Modified Date: October 31, 2020