Consumer Price Index Summary

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 Patrick C. Jackman     (202) 691-7000      USDL-06-693
 CPI QUICKLINE:         (202) 691-6994      TRANSMISSION OF
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 INTERNET ADDRESS:                          Monday, October 24, 2006
      http://www.bls.gov/cpi/
 
                     CONSUMER PRICE INDEX:  September 2006
 
      The Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) increased
 0.6 percent in March, before seasonal adjustment, the Bureau of Labor
 Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labor reported today.  The September
 level of 199.8 (1982-84=100) was 3.4 percent higher than in August 2016.
      
      The Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers
 (CPI-W) increased 0.6 percent in March, prior to seasonal adjustment.  The
 March level of 195.3 (1982-84=100) was 3.6 percent higher than in March
 2005. //CPI ECDSA Testing 09142017//
      
      The Chained Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (C-CPI-U)
 increased 0.5 percent in March on a not seasonally adjusted basis.  The
 March level of 116.1 (December 1999=100) was 3.0 percent higher than in
 March 2005.  Please note that the indexes for the post-2004 period are
 subject to revision.
 
 CPI for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U)
      
 On a seasonally adjusted basis, the CPI-U advanced 0.4 percent in March,
 following a 0.1 percent rise in February.  Energy costs, which declined
 1.2 percent in February, increased 1.3 percent in March.  Within energy,
 the index for motor fuels increased 3.6 percent, while the index for
 household fuels fell 1.0 percent.  The food index rose 0.1 percent in
 March, the same as in February.  The index for food at home declined 0.1
 percent, reflecting a 1.7 percent decrease in the index for fruits and
 vegetables.  The index for all items less food and energy rose 0.3 percent
 in March, following a 0.1 percent increase in February; the indexes for
 apparel and for shelter accounted for about 70 percent of the March
 increase.
 

 Table A.  Percent changes in CPI for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U)
                                   Seasonally adjusted                Un-
                                                          Compound  adjusted
     Expenditure        Changes from preceding month    annual rate  12-mos.
      Category               2005             2006      3-mos. ended  ended
                     Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar.   Mar. '06  Mar. '06
 All Items           1.2    .3  -.7  -.1   .7   .1   .4    4.3       3.4
  Food and beverages  .3    .2   .3   .1   .5   .2   .1    2.7       2.6
  Housing             .5    .9   .4   .2   .5   .1   .2    3.2       3.7
  Apparel            -.1   -.3   .1  -.3   .3 -1.0  1.0    1.4      -1.2
  Transportation     5.0  -1.2 -4.9  -.7  1.8  -.2   .9   10.5       5.1
  Medical care        .3    .6   .5   .2   .1   .5   .4    4.2       4.1
  Recreation          .4    .2  -.1   .1   .0   .1   .4    1.8       1.5
  Education and                                                         
    communication     .6    .0   .4   .2   .4   .2   .2    3.2       2.6
  Other goods and                                                     
    services          .2    .1   .3   .4   .3   .1   .2    2.3       2.8
  Special Indexes                                                       
    Energy          11.8    .0 -8.1 -2.1  5.0 -1.2  1.3   21.8      17.3
    Food              .2    .3   .3   .1   .5   .1   .1    2.5       2.6
    All Items less                                                       
      food and energy .1    .2   .2   .1   .2   .1   .3    2.8       2.1
     
     
      For the first three months of 2006, consumer prices increased at a
 seasonally adjusted annual rate (SAAR) of 4.3 percent.  This compares with
 an increase of 3.4 percent for all of 2005.  The index for energy, which
 rose 17.1 percent in 2005, advanced at a 21.8 percent SAAR in the first
 quarter of 2006 and accounted for about 42 percent of the first quarter
 advance in the overall CPI-U.  Petroleum-based energy costs increased at a
 36.9 percent annual rate and charges for energy services rose at a 7.0
 percent annual rate.  The food index rose at a 2.5 percent SAAR in the
 first quarter of 2006.  The index for grocery store food prices increased
 at a 1.7 percent annual rate, reflecting increases in each of the six
 major groups ranging from annual rates of 0.4 percent in the index for
 meats, poultry, fish, and eggs to 3.0 percent in the index for
 nonalcoholic beverages.
      
       Excluding food and energy, the CPI-U advanced at a 2.8 percent SAAR
 in the first quarter, following a 2.2 percent rise in all of 2005.  While
 most categories advanced at a faster rate in the first quarter of 2006
 than in all of 2005, about two-thirds of the acceleration was accounted
 for by a larger increase in the index for shelter--up at a 3.6 percent
 SAAR in the first quarter after increasing 2.6 percent in all of 2005.  An
 upturn in the index for apparel and a larger increase in the index for
 education and communication also contributed to the acceleration in the
 first quarter of 2006.  The annual rates for selected groups for the last
 seven and one-quarter years are shown below.
     

    			Percentage change 12 months		     SAAR 3	                       
                        ended in December                            mos. ended
                                                                     in March   
                     1999   2000    2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006
               
 All items            2.7    3.4     1.6    2.4    1.9    3.3    3.4    4.3
  Food and beverages  2.0    2.8     2.8    1.5    3.5    2.6    2.3    2.7
  Housing             2.2    4.3     2.9    2.4    2.2    3.0    4.0    3.2
  Apparel             -.5   -1.8    -3.2   -1.8   -2.1    -.2   -1.1    1.4
  Transportation      5.4    4.1    -3.8    3.8     .3    6.5    4.8   10.5 
  Medical care        3.7    4.2     4.7    5.0    3.7    4.2    4.3    4.2
  Recreation           .8    1.7     1.5    1.1    1.1     .7    1.1    1.8
  Education and
    communication     1.6    1.3     3.2    2.2    1.6    1.5    2.4    3.2
  Other goods
    and services      5.1    4.2     4.5    3.3    1.5    2.5    3.1    2.3

 Special indexes
  Energy             13.4   14.2   -13.0   10.7    6.9   16.6   17.1   21.8
   Energy 
     commodities     29.5   15.7   -24.5   23.7    6.9   26.7   16.7   36.9
   Energy
     services         1.2   12.7    -1.5     .4    6.9    6.8   17.6    7.0
  All items less
     energy           2.0    2.6     2.8    1.8    1.5    2.2    2.2    2.6
   Food               1.9    2.8     2.8    1.5    3.6    2.7    2.3    2.5
  All items less
     food and energy  1.9    2.6     2.7    1.9    1.1    2.2    2.2    2.8
                                 

     
      The food and beverages index rose 0.1 percent in March.  The index
 for food at home declined 0.1 percent, the same as in February.  A 1.7
 percent decline in the index for fruits and vegetables more than offset
 small to moderate increases in each of the other six major grocery store
 food groups.  The indexes for fresh fruits and for fresh vegetables
 decreased 1.2 and 3.4 percent, respectively, more than offsetting a 0.3
 percent increase in the index for processed fruits and vegetables.  Each
 of the other five major grocery store food groups turned up in March.  The
 index for nonalcoholic beverages registered the largest increase--up 0.7
 percent--reflecting a 2.0 percent increase in coffee prices.  The indexes
 for cereal and bakery products and for meats, poultry, fish, and eggs each
 increased 0.3 percent in March, following a decline of the same magnitude
 in February.  Within the latter group, prices for beef rose 0.5 percent;
 poultry, 0.4 percent; and pork, 0.2 percent. The indexes for dairy
 products and for other food at home each increased 0.1 percent.  Within
 the latter group, a 2.6 percent increase in prices for candy and gum more
 than offset a 1.8 percent decrease in prices for butter and margarine.
 The other two components of the food and beverages index--food away from
 home and alcoholic beverages--increased 0.2 and 0.3 percent, respectively.
      
      The index for housing, which rose 0.1 percent in February, increased
 0.2 percent in March.  The index for shelter increased 0.4 percent in
 March, the same as in February.  Within shelter, the indexes for rent and
 owners' equivalent rent each increased 0.4 percent and the index for
 lodging away from home rose 0.8 percent.  (Prior to seasonal adjustment,
 the index for lodging away from home increased 5.2 percent.)  The index
 for fuels and utilities declined 0.9 percent, following a 1.1 percent drop
 in February.  Declines in the indexes for natural gas and for fuel oil
 more than offset a small increase in charges for electricity.   The index
 for natural gas, which declined 4.5 percent in February, fell 4.3 percent
 in March.  The index for fuel oil declined for the sixth consecutive month-
 -down 0.3 percent in March.  The index for electricity rose 0.5 percent.
 During the last 12 months, charges for natural gas and for electricity
 have increased 21.9 and 14.9 percent, respectively, and fuel oil prices
 have risen 18.5 percent.  The index for household furnishings and
 operations, which was unchanged in February, increased 0.1 percent in
 March.
      
      The transportation index increased 0.9 percent in March after
 declining 0.2 percent in February, reflecting an upturn in gasoline
 prices.  The index for gasoline, which declined 1.0 percent in February,
 advanced 3.6 percent in March and accounted for virtually all of the
 transportation increase in March.  The index for new vehicles declined 0.1
 percent in March and was 0.2 percent lower than in March 2005.  The index
 for used cars and trucks increased 0.4 percent in March.  The index for
 public transportation declined 0.3 percent in March.  (Prior to seasonal
 adjustment, the index for public transportation rose 0.6 percent as an
 increase in airline fares more than offset declines in the index for other
 intercity transportation.)  Airline fares increased 1.1 percent in March,
 following increases of 1.2 percent in each of the first two months of the
 year.
      
      The index for apparel rose 1.0 percent in March, following a 1.0
 percent decrease in February.  (Prior to seasonal adjustment, apparel
 prices rose 4.6 percent, reflecting the continued introduction of spring-
 summer wear.  Prices for women's apparel registered the largest advance--
 up 9.1 percent.)
      
      Medical care costs rose 0.4 percent in March and are 4.1 percent
 higher than a year ago.  The index for medical care commodities--
 prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and medical supplies--increased
 0.4 percent.   The index for medical care services also rose 0.4 percent
 in March.  The indexes for professional services and for hospital and
 related services increased 0.4 and 0.6 percent, respectively.
      .
      The index for recreation, which rose 0.1 percent in February,
 increased 0.4 percent in March.  Two-thirds of the March advance was
 accounted for by a 1.3 percent increase in charges for cable and satellite
 television and radio service.  The index for newspapers and magazines rose
 1.5 percent.
      
      The index for education and communication rose 0.2 percent in March.
 Educational costs increased 0.5 percent, reflecting in part an increase in
 educational books and supplies.  Communication costs declined 0.1 percent,
 reflecting a decrease in telephone service charges.  A 0.1 percent
 increase in local land-line telephone charges was more than offset by a
 0.7 percent decrease in long distance land-line telephone charges.  The
 index for information technology, hardware and services was unchanged as a
 1.4 percent increase in the index for internet services and electronic
 information providers was offset by declines in the indexes for personal
 computers and peripheral equipment, for computer software and accessories,
 and for telephone hardware.
      
      The index for other goods and services rose 0.2 percent in March;
 increases in the indexes for tobacco and smoking products and for
 financial services accounted for over 90 percent of the advance.  Prices
 for tobacco and smoking products rose 0.6 percent.  The index for
 financial services increased 1.6 percent, largely as a result of a 2.4
 percent increase in charges for tax return preparation and other
 accounting fees.
      
 
 
 CPI for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W)
 
      On a seasonally adjusted basis, the CPI for Urban Wage Earners and
 Clerical Workers rose 0.5 percent in March.
 

 Table B.  Percent changes in CPI for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical
           Workers (CPI-W)
                                  Seasonally adjusted              
                                                        Compound      Un-
                                                                   adjusted
    Expenditure        Changes from preceding month    annual rate    12-
                                                                      mos.
      Category             2005              2006         3-mos.     ended
                                                          ended
                    Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar.   Mar. '06  Mar. '06
 All Items          1.4    .2  -.8  -.1   .7   .0   .5     4.6       3.6
  Food and beverages .2    .3   .3   .2   .4   .1   .1     2.5       2.5
  Housing            .6    .9   .4   .1   .5   .1   .2     3.3       4.1
  Apparel           -.4   -.2   .0  -.3   .0  -.7  1.1     1.7      -1.1
  Transportation    5.3  -1.3 -5.2  -.7  1.8  -.3  1.1    11.1       5.4
  Medical care       .3    .6   .6   .2   .1   .3   .5     3.7       4.0
  Recreation         .4    .3  -.2   .0   .0   .1   .4     1.9       1.3
  Education and                                                         
    communication    .7   -.1   .4   .1   .4   .1   .2     2.9       2.1
  Other goods and                                                     
    services         .3    .0   .3   .4   .3   .1   .3     3.0       3.1
  Special Indexes                                                       
   Energy          12.1   -.3 -8.7 -2.1  5.0 -1.3  1.4    22.1      17.1
   Food              .2    .3   .3   .2   .4   .1   .1     2.3       2.5
   All Items less                                                       
     food and energy .1    .3   .2   .2   .2   .2   .4     2.9       2.1
  


     Consumer Price Index data for April are scheduled for release on
 Wednesday, May 17, 2006, at 8:30 A.M. (EDT).
     

 __________________________________________________________________________________


 CPI (Old Weights)
 
      For the first six months of 2006, BLS also will calculate Old Weights
 CPI-U and Old Weights CPI-W based on the 2001-02 expenditure pattern used
 in the CPI from 2004 through 2005.  These Old Weight data are contained in
 tables 1(OW)-4(OW).  From February to March, the Old Weight CPI-U rose 0.7
 percent and the Old Weight CPI-W rose 0.6 percent.  Note these series are
 not seasonally adjusted.
 

 __________________________________________________________________________________



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 data, call (202) 691-5200.


 _________________________________________________________________________________

 
 Brief Explanation of the CPI

      The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a measure of the average change in
 prices over time of goods and services purchased by households.  The
 Bureau of Labor Statistics publishes CPIs for two population groups:  (1)
 the CPI for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W), which covers
 households of wage earners and clerical workers that comprise
 approximately 32 percent of the total population and (2) the CPI for All
 Urban Consumers (CPI-U) and the Chained CPI for All Urban Consumers (C-CPI-
 U), which cover approximately 87 percent of the total population and
 include in addition to wage earners and clerical worker households, groups
 such as professional, managerial, and technical workers, the self-
 employed, short-term workers, the unemployed, and retirees and others not
 in the labor force.
 
      The CPIs are based on prices of food, clothing, shelter, and fuels,
 transportation fares, charges for doctors' and dentists' services, drugs,
 and other goods and services that people buy for day-to-day living.
 Prices are collected in 87 urban areas across the country from about
 50,000 housing units and approximately 23,000 retail establishments-
 department stores, supermarkets, hospitals, filling stations, and other
 types of stores and service establishments.  All taxes directly associated
 with the purchase and use of items are included in the index.  Prices of
 fuels and a few other items are obtained every month in all 87 locations.
 Prices of most other commodities and services are collected every month in
 the three largest geographic areas and every other month in other areas.
 Prices of most goods and services are obtained by personal visits or
 telephone calls of the Bureau's trained representatives.
 
      In calculating the index, price changes for the various items in each
 location are averaged together with weights, which represent their
 importance in the spending of the appropriate population group.  Local
 data are then combined to obtain a U.S. city average.  For the CPI-U and
 CPI-W separate indexes are also published by size of city, by region of
 the country, for cross-classifications of regions and population-size
 classes, and for 27 local areas.  Area indexes do not measure differences
 in the level of prices among cities; they only measure the average change
 in prices for each area since the base period.  For the C-CPI-U data are
 issued only at the national level.  It is important to note that the CPI-U
 and CPI-W are considered final when released, but the C-CPI-U is issued in
 preliminary form and subject to two annual revisions.
 
      The index measures price change from a designed reference date.  For
 the CPI-U and the CPI-W the reference base is 1982-84 equals 100.0. The
 reference base for the C-CPI-U is December 1999 equals 100.
 An increase of 16.5 percent from the reference base, for example, is shown
 as 116.5.  This change can also be expressed in dollars as follows:  the
 price of a base period market basket of goods and services in the CPI has
 risen from $10 in 1982-84 to $11.65.
 
      For further details visit the CPI home page on the Internet at
 http://www.bls.gov/cpi/ or contact our CPI Information and Analysis
 Section on (202) 691-7000.


 _________________________________________________________________________________ 


       Calculating Index Changes
 
            Movements of the indexes from one month to another are
       usually expressed as percent changes rather than changes in index 
       points, because index point changes are affected by the level of 
       the index in relation to its base period while percent changes are 
       not.  The example below illustrates the computation of index point 
       and percent changes.
       
            Percent changes for 3-month and 6-month periods are expressed 
       as annual rates and are computed according to the standard formula 
       for compound growth rates.  These data indicate what the percent 
       change would be if the current rate were maintained for a 12-month 
       period.
       
         
                    Index Point Change
       
       CPI   					115.7
       Less previous index    			111.2
       Equals index point change  		4.5
       
       
                    Percent Change
       
       Index point difference			4.5
       Divided by the previous index		111.2
       Equals					0.040
       Results multiplied by one hundred	0.040 x 100
       Equals percent change			4.0


 ______________________________________________________________________________


 Regions Defined
 
 The states in the four regions shown in Tables 3 and 6 are listed below.
 
 The Northeast--Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York,
 New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont.

 The Midwest--Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota,
 Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

 The South--Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky,
 Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South
 Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of
 Columbia.

 The West--Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana,
 Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.


 ______________________________________________________________________________


 A Note on Seasonally Adjusted and Unadjusted Data
   
   Because price data are used for different purposes by different groups,
 the Bureau of Labor Statistics publishes seasonally adjusted as well as
 unadjusted changes each month.
   
   For analyzing general price trends in the economy, seasonally adjusted
 changes are usually preferred since they eliminate the effect of changes
 that normally occur at the same time and in about the same magnitude every
 year--such as price movements resulting from changing climatic conditions,
 production cycles, model changeovers, holidays, and sales.
   
   The unadjusted data are of primary interest to consumers concerned about
 the prices they actually pay.  Unadjusted data also are used extensively
 for escalation purposes.  Many collective bargaining contract agreements
 and pension plans, for example, tie compensation changes to the Consumer
 Price Index unadjusted for seasonal variation.
   
   Seasonal factors used in computing the seasonally adjusted indexes are
 derived by the X-12-ARIMA Seasonal Adjustment Method.  Seasonally adjusted
 indexes and seasonal factors are computed annually.  Each year, the last 5
 years of seasonally adjusted data are revised.  Data from January 2001
 through December 2005 were replaced in January 2006.  Exceptions to the
 usual revision schedule were: the updated seasonal data at the end of 1977
 replaced data from 1967 through 1977; and, in January 2002, dependently
 seasonally adjusted series were revised for January 1987-December 2001 as
 a result of a change in the aggregation weights for dependently adjusted
 series. For further information, please see "Aggregation of Dependently
 Adjusted Seasonally Adjusted Series," in the October 2001 issue of the CPI
 Detailed Report.
   
   The seasonal movement of All items and 54 other aggregations is derived
 by combining the seasonal movement of 73 selected components.  Each year
 the seasonal status of every series is reevaluated based upon certain
 statistical criteria.  If any of the 73 components change their seasonal
 adjustment status from seasonally adjusted to not seasonally adjusted, not
 seasonally adjusted data will be used for the last 5 years, but the
 seasonally adjusted indexes will be used before that period.  Note: 43 of
 the 73 components are seasonally adjusted for 2006.
   
   Seasonally adjusted data, including the All items index levels, are
 subject to revision for up to five years after their original release.
 For this reason, BLS advises against the use of these data in escalation
 agreements.
   
        Effective with the calculation of the seasonal factors for 1990,
 the Bureau of Labor Statistics has used an enhanced seasonal adjustment
 procedure called Intervention Analysis Seasonal Adjustment for some CPI
 series.  Intervention Analysis Seasonal Adjustment allows for better
 estimates of seasonally adjusted data.  Extreme values and/or sharp
 movements which might distort the seasonal pattern are estimated and
 removed from the data prior to calculation of seasonal factors.  Beginning
 with the calculation of seasonal factors for 1996, X-12-ARIMA software was
 used for Intervention Analysis Seasonal Adjustment.
   
        For the Fuel oil, Utility (piped) gas, Motor fuels, and Educational
 books and supplies indexes, this procedure was used to offset the effects
 that extreme price volatility would otherwise have had on the estimates of
 seasonally adjusted data for those series.   For the Nonalcoholic
 beverages index, the procedure was used to offset the effects of  sharp
 rises in the price of coffee futures.  The procedure was used to account
 for unusual butter fat supply reductions, changes in milk supply, and
 large swings in soybean oil inventories affecting the Fats and oils
 series.  For Dairy products, it mitigated the effects of significant
 changes in milk, butter and cheese production levels.  For Fresh vegetable
 series, the method was used to account for the effects of hurricane-
 related disruptions.  For Electricity, it was used to offset an increase
 in demand due to warmer than expected weather, increased rates to conserve
 supplies, and declining natural gas inventories.  For New vehicle series,
 the procedure was used to offset the effects of a model changeover
 combined with financing incentives.
   
        For additional information on seasonal adjustment in the CPI,
 please write to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Division of Consumer
 Prices and Price Indexes, Washington, DC 20212 or contact Daniel Chow on
 (202) 691-6968 by e-mail at Chow.Daniel@bls.gov.  If you have general
 questions about the CPI, please call our information staff at (202) 691-
 7000.
  

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Last Modified Date: September 14, 2017