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Economic News Release
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Table 5. Average annual percent growth in inflation-adjusted hourly earnings from 1978-2018 by educational attainment, sex, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and age

Table 5. Average annual percent growth in inflation-adjusted hourly earnings from
1978-2018 by educational attainment, sex, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and
age                                                                              
                                                                                 
                                                 Average annual percent growth in
                                                          hourly earnings        
                                                                                 
         Characteristic                        Ages 18  Ages 25  Ages 35  Ages 45
                                               to 24(1)  to 34    to 44  to 54(2)
                                                                                 
Total .....................................      6.4	  3.2	   1.8	    0.0
  Less than a high school diploma .........      2.8	  1.8	   0.5	   -0.7
  High school graduates, no college (3)....      5.1	  2.1	   1.6	   -0.4
  Some college or associate degree ........      6.2	  3.1	   1.7	    0.0
  Bachelor's degree and higher (4).........      9.2	  5.1	   2.3	    0.5
 	 	 	 	  
Men .......................................      7.0	  3.6	   1.7	   -0.1
  Less than a high school diploma .........      3.0	  1.9	   0.2	   -1.5
  High school graduates, no college (3)....      5.5	  2.2	   1.5	   -0.4
  Some college or associate degree ........      7.9	  3.9	   1.7	    0.2
  Bachelor's degree and higher (4).........      9.7	  6.0	   2.5	    0.5
 	 	 	 	 
Women .....................................      5.9	  2.8	   1.8	    0.0
  Less than a high school diploma .........      2.6	  1.6	   1.0	    0.7
  High school graduates, no college (3)....      4.6	  2.1	   1.6	   -0.5
  Some college or associate degree ........      4.9	  2.4	   1.8	   -0.1
  Bachelor's degree and higher (4).........      8.8	  4.2	   2.1	    0.6
 	 	 	 	 
White non-Hispanic ........................      6.8	  3.3	   1.8	    0.0
  Less than a high school diploma .........      3.5	  2.0	   0.3	   -0.7
  High school graduates, no college (3)....      5.4	  2.1	   1.6	   -0.5
  Some college or associate degree ........      6.2	  3.1	   1.8	    0.1
  Bachelor's degree and higher (4).........      9.5	  5.1	   2.3	    0.6
 	 	 	 	 
Black non-Hispanic ........................      4.3	  2.9	   1.4	    0.0
  Less than a high school diploma .........      0.6	  0.6	   0.6	    0.2
  High school graduates, no college (3)....      3.1	  2.1	   1.5	    0.0
  Some college or associate degree ........      6.1	  3.1	   1.3	   -0.1
  Bachelor's degree and higher (4).........      6.2	  5.5	   1.8	    0.1
 	 	 	 	 
Hispanic or Latino ........................      5.7	  2.6	   1.9	   -0.2
  Less than a high school diploma .........      1.8	  2.1	   1.6	   -1.5
  High school graduates, no college (3)....      5.9	  2.0	   1.0	   -0.3
  Some college or associate degree ........      6.1	  2.6	   2.4	   -0.2
  Bachelor's degree and higher (4).........      9.0	  4.6	   3.9	    1.0
                                                               
   (1) This category excludes individuals who turned age 18 before January 1, 1978.
   (2) This category excludes individuals who had not yet turned age 55 when
interviewed in 2018-19.
   (3) Includes individuals with a high school diploma or equivalent.
   (4) Includes individuals with bachelor's, master's, professional, or doctoral degrees.
Note: The CPI-U-RS was used to adjust hourly earnings to constant dollars, prior to calculating the 
growth rates. 
The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 consists of men and women who were born in the years 
1957-64 and were ages 14 to 22 when first interviewed in 1979. These individuals were ages 53 to 62 in
2018-19. Educational attainment is defined as of the 2018-19 survey. Race and Hispanic or Latino 
ethnicity groups are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive.  Other race groups, which are included in the 
overall totals, are not shown separately because their representation in the survey sample is not sufficiently
large to provide statistically reliable estimates.
Last Modified Date: May 19, 2023