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Economic News Release
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Multifactor Productivity Trends for Detailed Industries News Release

Internet: http://www.bls.gov/mfp/home.htm	 	USDL xx-xxxx
Technical information: (202) 691-5618			For release: 10:00 a.m. EDT
Media contact: (202) 691-5902 				Tuesday, August 21, 2007


                       MULTIFACTOR PRODUCTIVITY TRENDS
                  FOR DETAILED MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES, 2005

        The Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labor reported today on 
multifactor productivity – output per unit of combined inputs – for four-digit NAICS 
manufacturing industries through the year 2005.  Multifactor productivity rose in roughly 
two-thirds of the 86 detailed manufacturing industries in 2005, slightly fewer than in 
2004.  More industries experienced an increase in multifactor productivity over a longer 
period.  From 1987 to 2005, multifactor productivity increased in three-quarters of the 
manufacturing industries. //PRIN3 ZUNI3PO Test 10302020//  
        
	Multifactor productivity indexes relate the change in output to the change in the 
combination of labor, capital, and intermediate purchases inputs consumed in producing 
that output. Because industry multifactor productivity indexes explicitly account for inputs 
of capital and intermediates as well as labor, they are not influenced by the substitution of 
capital and intermediate inputs for labor, as are measures of labor productivity. Industry 
multifactor productivity indexes measure the joint influences on economic growth of a 
variety of factors, including technological change, returns to scale, enhancements in 
managerial and staff skills, changes in the organization of production, and other 
efficiency improvements.

        The attached tables present multifactor productivity and related series for all four-
digit manufacturing industries that are based, for the first time, on the North American 
Industry Classification System, or NAICS.  Historical data were reconstructed to reflect 
the switch to NAICS, and therefore these measures are not comparable with the detailed 
industry measures previously reported on a 1987 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 
basis. 
	 
2004-05 change

        Multifactor productivity rose in 58 industries in 2005, as output rose in 71 
industries and combined inputs rose in 55 industries.  Changes in multifactor productivity 
were broadly distributed and varied greatly across industries, even within 3-digit industry 
groups. (See Table 1 and Chart 1).  Multifactor productivity rose by 3 percent or more in 
29 industries, but declined in 28 industries in 2005.

**Chart 1. Distribution of annual rates of change for multifactor productivity, 2004-2005
        
        Five industries registered double-digit growth in multifactor productivity.  The 
largest increase in multifactor productivity, 27.6 percent, occurred in computer and 
peripheral equipment (NAICS 3341), followed by an increase of 18.9 percent in apparel 
knitting mills (NAICS 3151).  Output rose rapidly in the five industries with the largest 
productivity increases, while combined inputs declined in all five except computer and 
peripheral equipment.  The largest multifactor productivity decline was 10.9 percent in 
railroad rolling stock (NAICS 3365), where output increased but combined inputs rose 
much more rapidly.
        
**Chart 2. Number of industries with multifactor productivity growth, Annually, 2001-
2005
        
        The number of industries with multifactor productivity growth each year 
increased greatly after 2001. (See Chart 2.) While still high compared to 2001, the 58 
industries with multifactor productivity growth in 2005 represent a slight decline from the 
numbers that recorded growth in 2002, 2003, and 2004. Although output rose in 16 more 
industries in 2005 than in 2004, combined inputs increased in 19 more industries than in 
2004.  For most industries, input growth in 2005 was led by increases in intermediate 
purchases.  While capital services increased in 31 industries and labor hours rose in 30 
industries, intermediate purchases increased in 60 industries.

Long-term trends

        From 1987 to 2005, multifactor productivity rose in 65 industries. (See Table 2.)   
Output rose in 69 industries while combined inputs rose in 60 industries. Although more 
industries registered multifactor productivity growth from 1987 to 2005 than did so in 
2005, the average annual change in multifactor productivity was more modest for most 
industries over the long term.   Multifactor productivity grew between 0 percent and 3 
percent per year, on average, in 63 industries, and exceeded 3 percent per year in only 
four industries. (See Chart 3.)
        
**Chart 3. Distribution of annual rates of change for multifactor productivity, 1987-2005

        The five manufacturing industries with the fastest growth in multifactor 
productivity over the period were all in the computer and electronic products subsector 
(NAICS 334).  The multifactor productivity growth of 17.5 percent per year in computer 
and peripheral equipment (NAICS 3341) and 14.9 percent in semiconductors and 
electronic components (NAICS 3344) were much faster than for any other manufacturing 
industry.

        Multifactor productivity declined in nineteen industries from 1987 to 2005.  
However, the average decline over the period was less than 1 percent per year for all but 
three industries. The largest decline in multifactor productivity was 1.8 percent per year 
in tobacco and tobacco products (NAICS 3122).

        Table 3 shows average annual multifactor productivity growth by industry 
between 1987 and 2005 and for various subperiods.  Multifactor productivity grew in 
more industries from 2000 to 2005 than in any of the other periods shown. (See Chart 4.)  
From 2000 to 2005, 68 industries recorded positive multifactor productivity growth, and 
12 industries recorded average annual growth in excess of three percent.  By comparison, 
from 1995 to 2000, 51 industries had positive multifactor productivity growth, with six 
industries growing at an average annual rate greater than three percent.  Average annual 
multifactor productivity growth accelerated in 55 industries in 2000 to 2005 compared to 
1995 to 2000. 
        
**Chart 4. Number of industries with multifactor productivity growth, 1987-2005 and 
selected subperiods

Technical Note

Output

        Industry output is measured as sectoral output, the total value, in real terms, of 
goods and services produced for sale outside the industry. For most manufacturing 
industries, real output is measured by deflating nominal value of production, but for a few 
detailed industries within the petroleum refining, cement, iron and steel, and aluminum 
industries it is measured by physical quantities of output.  Industry value of production is 
derived by adjusting industry shipments for changes in inventories and subtracting intra-
industry transfers and resales.  Wherever possible, the indexes of industry output are 
calculated with a Törnqvist formula. This formula aggregates the growth rates of the 
various industry outputs between two periods, using their relative shares in industry value 
of production, averaged over the two periods, as weights. 
        
        Industry output measures for manufacturing are constructed primarily using data 
from the economic censuses and annual surveys of the Bureau of the Census, U.S. 
Department of Commerce, together with information on price changes primarily from 
BLS. 

Combined Inputs 

	The index of combined inputs is a Törnqvist index of separate quantity measures 
of labor, capital, and intermediate purchases inputs.  The growth rates of the various 
inputs are aggregated using their average relative cost shares in industry value of 
production as weights.  The labor weight is based on the total value of labor 
compensation, including fringe benefits.  The intermediate purchases weight is based on 
the total value of materials (adjusted to remove intra-industry transactions), fuels, 
electricity, and purchased services.  The capital weight is a residual calculated as the 
value of net production minus the value of labor compensation minus the value of 
intermediate purchases.

Capital Input

	The measure of capital input is based on the flow of services derived from the 
stock of physical assets. Physical capital is composed of 26 categories of equipment, 2 
categories of structures, 3 categories of inventories, and land. Capital services are 
estimated by calculating capital stocks; changes in the stocks are assumed to be 
proportional to changes in capital services for each asset.  

	Capital stocks are calculated using the perpetual inventory method, which takes 
into account the continual additions to and subtractions from the stock of capital as new 
investment and retirement of old capital occur.  The perpetual inventory method 
measures stocks at the end of a year equal to a weighted sum of all past investments, 
where the weights are the asset’s efficiency relative to a new asset. A hyperbolic age-
efficiency function is assumed to calculate the relative efficiency of an asset at different 
ages. 
        Estimates of investment by asset type are derived from annual capital 
expenditures by industry from the economic censuses and annual surveys of the Bureau 
of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, along with estimates of asset detail by 
industry from the capital flow tables of the Bureau of Economic Analysis.  

        Price changes are removed from the annual investment data before calculating 
stocks. Price deflators for each asset category are constructed by combining detailed price 
indexes (mostly PPIs) with weights from the BEA capital flow tables that reflect the 
industry’s use of individual asset commodities. 

        The index of aggregate capital input for each industry is an annually chained 
Törnqvist quantity index.  To construct the index, the growth rates of the stocks of each 
type of asset are aggregated using weights that are the average of each asset type’s cost 
share in successive years.  The asset costs are estimated by multiplying the asset stocks 
by implicit rental prices.

Labor Input

        The industry labor input measures represent the hours of all workers in the 
industry. The primary source of data on employment and hours is the BLS Current 
Employment Statistics (CES) survey, which provides monthly data on the number of jobs 
held by wage and salary workers employed directly in nonfarm establishments. The CES 
survey also provides data on the average weekly hours of production and nonsupervisory 
workers in these establishments. 
        
        Data from the BLS Current Population Survey (CPS) are used to supplement the 
CES data. The Division of Industry Productivity Studies (DIPS) estimates the average 
weekly hours of nonproduction workers for each industry using data from the CPS 
together with the CES data. The hours of all workers are treated as homogeneous and are 
directly aggregated. 
        
Intermediate Purchases Input
        
        The measures of intermediate purchases input is constructed as a Törnqvist aggregate 
of separate quantities of materials, services, fuels, and electricity consumed by each 
industry. Except for electricity, for which direct quantity data are available, quantities are 
derived by deflating current-dollar values with appropriate price deflators. 

        Nominal values of materials, fuels and electricity and quantities of electricity 
consumed by each industry are obtained from economic censuses and annual surveys of 
the Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce.  Purchased business services 
are estimated using benchmark input-output tables and other annual industry data from 
the Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S, Department of Commerce.  

        To avoid double counting, the materials estimates exclude the value of intra-industry 
purchases. Estimates of materials purchased from other establishments within the industry 
are subtracted from the gross measure of materials costs.

        Constant-dollar materials consumed are derived by dividing annual current-dollar 
industry purchases by a weighted price deflator for each industry. Materials deflators are 
constructed for each industry by combining detailed producer price indexes and import price 
indexes from BLS using weights based on detailed commodity data from the BEA 
benchmark input-output tables. Aggregate price indexes to deflate purchased business 
services are constructed in a similar manner.

        Annual total fuels consumed by each industry are also deflated with weighted 
price deflators.  Producer price indexes for individual fuel categories are weighted 
together with weights reflecting detailed fuels expenditures by industry from the Energy 
Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy.

Additional Information

        The multifactor productivity measures in this news release include data on 
industry output, capital expenditures and cost of materials and fuels from the 2005 
Annual Survey of Manufactures of the Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of 
Commerce, along with data from the 1997 benchmark IO tables and capital flow tables of 
the Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce.  Employment and 
hours data from the BLS Current Employment Statistics survey reflect the annual 
benchmark revision published in February 2007.  The output and labor input measures 
included in this release are the same as those used in the labor productivity measures for 
four-digit manufacturing industries released April 19, 2007.

        Tables containing multifactor productivity and related indexes for the 
manufacturing industries included in this release are accessible on the Multifactor 
Productivity website at http://www.bls.gov/mfp/home.htm.   More detailed data and 
information is available upon request by sending an email to dipsweb@bls.gov or by 
calling the Division of Industry Productivity Studies (202-691-5618).

Material in this report is in the public domain and, with appropriate credit, may be used 
without permission.  Information in this report will be made available to sensory-
impaired individuals upon request.  Voice phone: 202-691-5618; TDD message referral 
phone number: 1-800-877-8339.

 
Table 1.   Multifactor productivity and related data for 86 industries, percent change, 2004-2005

                                                                                         Percent change, 2004-2005
                                                                2005     -----------------------------------------------------------                 
 NAICS                        Industry                       Employment  Multifactor          Combined                  Intermediate
  code                                                      (thousands)  productivity  Output  inputs    Labor  Capital  purchases

3111         Animal food                                          49          6.3        8.8      2.4     -2.0     1.5       3.3
3112         Grain and oilseed milling                            61         -1.0        5.9      6.9      0.2     0.0       9.6
3113         Sugar and confectionery products                     79          6.4        2.5     -3.7     -7.7    -0.2      -4.2
3114         Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty        174         -1.3        0.2      1.5     -4.2     0.8       3.1
3115         Dairy products                                      132          2.0        5.3      3.2      3.2     1.4       3.6
3116         Animal slaughtering and processing                  504          2.1        5.2      3.0     -3.3     2.4       4.3
3117         Seafood product preparation and packaging            41          2.1        5.1      2.9     -8.4    -0.1       6.0
3118         Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing                 280         -0.1        0.9      1.0     -0.5     0.0       2.0
3119         Other food products                                 159         -1.4        0.1      1.6      3.5     0.5       1.7

3121         Beverages                                           167          3.6        5.2      1.5      0.6     0.7       2.1
3122         Tobacco and tobacco products                         25          7.0        4.5     -2.3     -7.5    -3.5      -0.6

3131         Fiber, yarn, and thread mills                        50         -1.3       -3.4     -2.2     -1.1    -4.4      -2.1
3132         Fabric mills                                        104          8.2       -3.0    -10.3    -10.7    -4.7     -11.4
3133         Textile and fabric finishing mills                   63          8.1        1.9     -5.7     -7.0    -4.5      -5.6

3141         Textile furnishings mills                            96          1.1        5.6      4.5     -4.4    -2.1       8.8
3149         Other textile product mills                          74          4.8        4.6     -0.2     -1.5     0.3       0.3

3151         Apparel knitting mills                               37         18.9       11.0     -6.7    -10.2    -4.2      -6.1
3152         Cut and sew apparel                                 200          2.5       -6.7     -9.0    -10.5    -3.9     -11.6
3159         Accessories and other apparel                        21          2.1        6.5      4.2     -7.5    -4.4      13.8

3161         Leather and hide tanning and finishing                7         -7.5       -0.7      7.4    -10.0    -3.1      14.5
3162         Footwear                                             18         -1.9        2.2      4.1     -4.4    -3.4       9.6
3169         Other leather products                               15         10.8       10.1     -0.6     -3.5     1.2      -0.3

3211         Sawmills and wood preservation                      119          2.9        7.7      4.6     -0.5     0.3       6.8
3212         Plywood and engineered wood products                123          1.3        8.1      6.7      0.8     2.7      10.3
3219         Other wood products                                 317         -0.7        5.4      6.2      0.2     3.0       9.6

3221         Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills                   142          2.4        0.0     -2.3     -0.6    -3.6      -2.1
3222         Converted paper products                            343          1.7        0.8     -0.8     -1.2    -0.9      -0.7

3231         Printing and related support activities             646          3.8        2.3     -1.4     -2.2     1.1      -2.2

3241         Petroleum and coal products                         112          0.7        0.2     -0.5     -0.1     1.6      -1.0

3251         Basic chemicals                                     150          4.5       -0.7     -5.0     -6.0    -2.5      -5.6
3252         Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers                108          2.1        3.8      1.6     -1.0    -2.6       3.0
3253         Agricultural chemicals                               40         13.3        9.6     -3.3     -4.1    -2.0      -4.0
3254         Pharmaceuticals and medicines                       288          1.5        0.8     -0.6     -2.7     2.9      -5.6
3255         Paints, coatings, and adhesives                      68          4.2        1.3     -2.8     -2.3    -2.4      -3.0
3256         Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries           114         17.7        7.7     -8.5     -4.5     0.5     -17.4
3259         Other chemical products and preparations            104          2.6       -1.2     -3.7     -3.0    -3.1      -4.2

3261         Plastics products                                   635         -0.4        1.2      1.7     -1.5     0.7       3.2
3262         Rubber products                                     169          0.5        0.8      0.3     -3.4    -0.3       2.3

3271         Clay products and refractories                       62          4.6        2.9     -1.6     -3.5    -1.0      -0.7
3272         Glass and glass products                            108          2.3        0.3     -1.9     -6.9    -1.9       1.2
3273         Cement and concrete products                        240          0.2        4.8      4.6      2.1     1.6       7.8
3274         Lime and gypsum products                             20          5.0        7.4      2.3     -4.2     1.0       5.2
3279         Other nonmetallic mineral products                   76          1.9        5.6      3.7     -1.2     0.5       8.7

3311         Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy production       96         -2.9       -1.9      1.0      0.7    -2.4       2.9
3312         Steel products from purchased steel                  61         -1.8        4.2      6.1      2.0    -2.2      10.3
3313         Alumina and aluminum production                      73          2.1       11.4      9.1     -0.6    -2.4      14.9
3314         Other nonferrous metal production                    72         -9.0        1.5     11.5      2.0    -3.2      17.7
3315         Foundries                                           164         -0.1        1.4      1.5     -1.8    -1.0       4.8

3321         Forging and stamping                                111         -0.7        4.2      5.0      0.9     0.4       8.8
3322         Cutlery and hand tools                               56          3.0        2.7     -0.2     -5.0    -2.5       3.9
3323         Architectural and structural metals                 398         -0.1        6.8      6.9      4.2     2.2      10.2
3324         Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers              91         -3.2       -0.4      2.9     -0.9    -0.3       5.0
3325         Hardware                                             36          1.8       -4.5     -6.3     -9.2    -2.4      -6.7
3326         Spring and wire products                             59          3.1        2.7     -0.4     -6.0    -0.7       2.6
3327         Machine shops and threaded products                 345         -0.7        5.3      6.0      4.6     1.4       9.6
3328         Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals        145          6.2        9.7      3.3      1.1    -1.4       6.1
3329         Other fabricated metal products                     282          0.9        2.1      1.2      0.8    -1.2       2.8

3331         Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery     208          0.9       12.5     11.5      7.8     0.6      15.3
3332         Industrial machinery                                124         -5.4       -2.1      3.5      1.6    -1.2       5.8
3333         Commercial and service industry machinery           111         -0.2        0.6      0.8     -5.6    -3.2       4.6
3334         HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment         153         -1.6        4.5      6.3      0.9     0.8      10.0
3335         Metalworking machinery                              202          3.5        7.2      3.6     -0.8    -1.7       8.1
3336         Turbine and power transmission equipment             98         -2.1        9.2     11.5      5.2    -1.5      15.7
3339         Other general purpose machinery                     268          1.1        8.8      7.7      0.9    -0.2      13.0

3341         Computer and peripheral equipment                   205         27.6       28.0      0.3     -7.5    -6.6       2.0
3342         Communications equipment                            147          5.7       -1.7     -7.0      1.0   -15.1      -7.7
3343         Audio and video equipment                            32         -0.4        0.4      0.8      0.4    -0.6       1.0
3344         Semiconductors and electronic components            452          8.9        6.6     -2.1     -0.4    -0.5      -4.0
3345         Electronic instruments                              436         -1.0        1.2      2.2      5.3     0.1       1.2
3346         Magnetic media manufacturing and reproduction        35          6.5       -3.2     -9.1     -3.9    -4.6     -11.4

3351         Electric lighting equipment                          61          4.9        4.2     -0.7     -4.3    -1.4       1.5
3352         Household appliances                                 85          3.4       -0.4     -3.7     -3.7    -3.1      -3.9
3353         Electrical equipment                                152         -1.4        1.5      3.0     -3.6    -2.2       8.2
3359         Other electrical equipment and components           136          1.5        3.7      2.1     -1.5    -3.3       5.9

3361         Motor vehicles                                      248          1.3       -0.2     -1.6     -3.6    -1.5      -1.4
3362         Motor vehicle bodies and trailers                   171          0.4        6.0      5.6      2.8     3.4       6.7
3363         Motor vehicle parts                                 678          2.8        1.3     -1.5     -3.2    -4.1      -0.6
3364         Aerospace products and parts                        455          0.7       16.2     15.4      4.4     1.2      29.0
3365         Railroad rolling stock                               27        -10.9        3.2     15.9     12.2    -3.5      19.0
3366         Ship and boat building                              153         -3.7        2.5      6.3      6.7    -0.9       8.7
3369         Other transportation equipment                       40          3.1        9.9      6.5      1.1     3.1       8.5

3371         Household and institutional furniture               380          1.8        4.2      2.4     -2.4     0.5       5.6
3372         Office furniture and fixtures                       133         -0.1        3.6      3.8     -0.7    -1.4       8.6
3379         Other furniture-related products                     52         -1.4        2.0      3.4      0.4    -0.2       5.9

3391         Medical equipment and supplies                      305          7.1       10.9      3.5      2.9     3.8       3.8
3399         Other miscellaneous manufacturing                   348          3.2        4.4      1.2     -3.4     2.4       3.4



 
Table 2.   Multifactor productivity and related data for 86 industries, average annual percent change, 1987-2005

                                                                       Average annual percent change, 1987-2005
                                                             -------------------------------------------------------------
 NAICS                        Industry                        Multifactor          Combined                   Intermediate
  code                                                       productivity  Output   inputs    Labor   Capital  purchases

3111         Animal food                                           1.0       2.5      1.5     -1.3      2.5        1.6
3112         Grain and oilseed milling                            -0.2       1.8      2.0     -1.2      1.4        2.4
3113         Sugar and confectionery products                      0.5       1.2      0.7     -1.0      1.7        0.8
3114         Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty          0.1       1.6      1.5     -0.4      1.9        1.8
3115         Dairy products                                       -0.2       1.0      1.2     -0.5      2.1        1.3
3116         Animal slaughtering and processing                    0.9       2.4      1.4      1.3      2.9        1.3
3117         Seafood product preparation and packaging             0.4       1.1      0.7     -1.2      1.3        1.0
3118         Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing                  -0.8       0.8      1.7      0.0      2.3        2.3
3119         Other food products                                   0.4       2.1      1.7      1.2      1.5        2.0

3121         Beverages                                             0.5       1.8      1.3     -0.6      1.0        1.8
3122         Tobacco and tobacco products                         -1.8      -2.0     -0.3     -3.4     -1.7        2.0

3131         Fiber, yarn, and thread mills                         0.9       0.1     -0.8     -4.3     -0.3        0.2
3132         Fabric mills                                          1.1      -1.5     -2.6     -5.8     -0.9       -1.6
3133         Textile and fabric finishing mills                    0.8      -1.3     -2.1     -3.6     -0.8       -2.0

3141         Textile furnishings mills                             0.4       1.1      0.7     -1.1      0.1        1.4
3149         Other textile product mills                           0.4       0.9      0.5     -0.9      2.0        0.8

3151         Apparel knitting mills                                0.7      -3.9     -4.6     -6.3     -1.2       -4.9
3152         Cut and sew apparel                                  -0.5      -5.1     -4.7     -7.6     -1.5       -5.0
3159         Accessories and other apparel                        -1.5      -4.2     -2.7     -3.2     -0.6       -3.0

3161         Leather and hide tanning and finishing               -1.0      -3.5     -2.6     -4.2     -1.2       -2.8
3162         Footwear                                             -0.6      -6.8     -6.2     -8.5     -2.9       -5.6
3169         Other leather products                                1.2      -2.4     -3.6     -4.8     -1.5       -3.7

3211         Sawmills and wood preservation                        0.5       1.4      0.8     -1.4      0.2        1.5
3212         Plywood and engineered wood products                 -0.2       1.6      1.7      1.0      2.1        2.1
3219         Other wood products                                  -0.2       1.0      1.2     -0.1      1.7        1.7

3221         Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills                     0.8       0.3     -0.5     -3.0      0.5       -0.1
3222         Converted paper products                              0.1       0.7      0.6     -0.7      1.7        0.7

3231         Printing and related support activities               0.0       0.3      0.3     -0.8      2.6        0.0

3241         Petroleum and coal products                           1.1       1.3      0.2     -1.8      1.2        0.2

3251         Basic chemicals                                      -0.7       0.5      1.2     -2.5      1.1        1.9
3252         Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers                  0.5       1.3      0.7     -1.5      1.5        0.9
3253         Agricultural chemicals                                1.8       1.5     -0.3     -1.3     -0.9        0.3
3254         Pharmaceuticals and medicines                        -0.8       4.0      4.8      2.8      5.9        4.3
3255         Paints, coatings, and adhesives                       0.0       0.7      0.6     -1.1      0.9        1.0
3256         Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries             1.1       2.7      1.7     -0.6      2.5        1.4
3259         Other chemical products and preparations             -0.1       0.6      0.7     -2.1      1.1        1.5

3261         Plastics products                                     0.7       3.2      2.5      0.4      4.0        2.8
3262         Rubber products                                       1.0       1.4      0.4     -1.2      0.9        1.1

3271         Clay products and refractories                        0.9      -0.2     -1.1     -1.8     -0.2       -1.0
3272         Glass and glass products                              1.1       0.8     -0.3     -1.4      1.3       -0.5
3273         Cement and concrete products                          0.6       2.0      1.3      1.3      1.3        1.3
3274         Lime and gypsum products                              0.1       0.7      0.6     -0.9      1.0        0.7
3279         Other nonmetallic mineral products                    1.3       1.5      0.2     -0.5      0.4        0.5

3311         Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy production        1.9       1.9     -0.1     -3.1     -1.7        1.8
3312         Steel products from purchased steel                   0.2       0.1     -0.1     -0.6     -1.4        0.5
3313         Alumina and aluminum production                       0.9       0.7     -0.2     -2.2      0.0        0.4
3314         Other nonferrous metal production                    -0.4      -0.8     -0.4     -2.1     -0.5        0.0
3315         Foundries                                             0.9       1.1      0.2     -1.4      0.2        1.3

3321         Forging and stamping                                  1.0       2.0      1.0     -1.1      1.9        1.8
3322         Cutlery and hand tools                               -0.2      -0.1      0.2     -1.7      0.7        1.2
3323         Architectural and structural metals                   0.3       1.8      1.6      0.7      1.3        2.0
3324         Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers               0.4      -0.5     -1.0     -1.0      0.0       -1.2
3325         Hardware                                              0.1      -1.0     -1.2     -3.2      0.2       -0.6
3326         Spring and wire products                              1.2       1.6      0.4     -1.6      1.5        1.2
3327         Machine shops and threaded products                   1.2       3.3      2.1      1.0      2.9        2.7
3328         Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals          1.7       3.6      1.9      0.3      2.6        2.8
3329         Other fabricated metal products                       0.1       0.3      0.2     -0.9      0.8        0.8

3331         Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery       0.7       3.2      2.4      0.0     -0.2        3.8
3332         Industrial machinery                                  0.4       1.9      1.5     -0.8      2.7        2.4
3333         Commercial and service industry machinery            -0.4      -0.3      0.1     -1.8      0.6        1.0
3334         HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment           0.9       2.4      1.5     -0.4      1.8        2.1
3335         Metalworking machinery                                0.7       0.8      0.1     -1.4      1.3        1.2
3336         Turbine and power transmission equipment             -0.2       2.1      2.2     -0.7      0.9        3.7
3339         Other general purpose machinery                       0.5       1.9      1.4     -0.9      0.7        2.7

3341         Computer and peripheral equipment                    17.5      19.5      1.6     -4.1      1.4        3.3
3342         Communications equipment                              3.6       4.8      1.1     -2.5      2.9        2.3
3343         Audio and video equipment                             2.9       4.2      1.3     -3.3      1.2        2.3
3344         Semiconductors and electronic components             14.9      17.2      2.0     -1.5      6.9        1.3
3345         Electronic instruments                                1.0       1.4      0.4     -2.4      0.7        2.6
3346         Magnetic media manufacturing and reproduction         3.8       2.8     -1.0     -0.1      2.3       -1.6

3351         Electric lighting equipment                           0.6       0.5     -0.1     -1.6      0.7        0.2
3352         Household appliances                                  2.0       2.0      0.0     -2.5      0.4        0.7
3353         Electrical equipment                                  0.3       0.0     -0.3     -2.9     -0.4        1.2
3359         Other electrical equipment and components             0.4       0.3     -0.1     -2.1      0.7        0.3

3361         Motor vehicles                                        0.1       2.5      2.4     -1.2      1.6        3.0
3362         Motor vehicle bodies and trailers                    -0.1       3.0      3.0      1.3      2.3        3.6
3363         Motor vehicle parts                                   1.5       3.8      2.2      0.3      2.0        3.0
3364         Aerospace products and parts                         -0.7      -1.2     -0.5     -3.2     -0.1        1.1
3365         Railroad rolling stock                                0.6       4.8      4.2      0.3     -0.7        6.0
3366         Ship and boat building                                0.3       1.1      0.7     -0.8     -0.2        2.0
3369         Other transportation equipment                        1.6       5.5      3.8      0.3      3.1        5.0

3371         Household and institutional furniture                 0.7       1.6      0.9     -0.4      1.7        1.5
3372         Office furniture and fixtures                         0.5       1.7      1.2     -0.9      2.1        2.1
3379         Other furniture-related products                      0.8       2.6      1.8      0.6      0.9        2.5

3391         Medical equipment and supplies                        1.8       4.8      3.0      1.0      5.4        2.9
3399         Other miscellaneous manufacturing                     0.9       2.0      1.1     -0.7      2.0        1.8



 
Table 3.  Multifactor productivity trends, 1987-2005 and selected subperiods

                                                                           Average annual percent change
                                                            ----------------------------------------------------------
 NAICS                        Industry                      1987-2005  1987-90   1990-95   1995-00   2000-05   2004-05
  code

3111         Animal food                                        1.0       0.4       0.6      -1.5       4.2       6.3
3112         Grain and oilseed milling                         -0.2       0.1       0.6      -1.2      -0.2      -1.0
3113         Sugar and confectionery products                   0.5      -0.3       0.6       0.6       0.8       6.4
3114         Fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty       0.1      -2.6       1.3       0.1       0.7      -1.3
3115         Dairy products                                    -0.2      -0.3      -0.5      -1.0       1.0       2.0
3116         Animal slaughtering and processing                 0.9      -1.0       1.3       0.8       1.8       2.1
3117         Seafood product preparation and packaging          0.4      -1.4       0.2       0.1       2.0       2.1
3118         Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing               -0.8      -4.9       0.4      -1.0       0.5      -0.1
3119         Other food products                                0.4       0.0       0.7      -0.8       1.5      -1.4

3121         Beverages                                          0.5       0.4       1.0      -2.2       2.9       3.6
3122         Tobacco and tobacco products                      -1.8      -1.8       0.9      -2.9      -3.3       7.0

3131         Fiber, yarn, and thread mills                      0.9       0.0       0.5      -0.1       2.8      -1.3
3132         Fabric mills                                       1.1      -0.1       1.4       0.3       2.4       8.2
3133         Textile and fabric finishing mills                 0.8      -0.1       0.0       1.2       1.9       8.1

3141         Textile furnishings mills                          0.4      -0.7       1.2      -0.9       1.4       1.1
3149         Other textile product mills                        0.4      -1.0      -0.4       0.4       2.1       4.8

3151         Apparel knitting mills                             0.7       0.9       2.0      -2.4       2.6      18.9
3152         Cut and sew apparel                               -0.5      -1.2       0.5      -0.7      -0.9       2.5
3159         Accessories and other apparel                     -1.5       1.0       0.4      -3.8      -2.6       2.1

3161         Leather and hide tanning and finishing            -1.0      -3.6      -0.5       4.3      -5.0      -7.5
3162         Footwear                                          -0.6      -1.8       0.3      -0.7      -0.8      -1.9
3169         Other leather products                             1.2       0.2      -3.2       3.1       4.4      10.8

3211         Sawmills and wood preservation                     0.5       2.4       0.4      -0.8       0.9       2.9
3212         Plywood and engineered wood products              -0.2      -0.6      -0.1      -0.3       0.2       1.3
3219         Other wood products                               -0.2      -0.8      -1.0      -0.1       1.0      -0.7

3221         Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills                  0.8      -1.6      -0.2       1.3       2.6       2.4
3222         Converted paper products                           0.1      -0.6      -0.2       0.0       1.0       1.7

3231         Printing and related support activities            0.0      -0.2      -0.4      -0.4       0.9       3.8

3241         Petroleum and coal products                        1.1      -1.8       1.8       2.2       1.1       0.7

3251         Basic chemicals                                   -0.7      -0.7      -3.2      -1.6       2.8       4.5
3252         Resin, rubber, and artificial fibers               0.5      -0.7       1.4      -0.1       1.1       2.1
3253         Agricultural chemicals                             1.8       2.2       1.2      -1.5       5.7      13.3
3254         Pharmaceuticals and medicines                     -0.8      -1.7      -2.4      -1.0       1.7       1.5
3255         Paints, coatings, and adhesives                    0.0      -1.9      -0.7      -0.7       2.7       4.2
3256         Soaps, cleaning compounds, and toiletries          1.1      -1.4       0.3      -1.2       5.7      17.7
3259         Other chemical products and preparations          -0.1      -1.6       0.2       0.8      -0.3       2.6

3261         Plastics products                                  0.7      -0.8       1.1       1.1       0.8      -0.4
3262         Rubber products                                    1.0       1.4       1.3       1.2       0.2       0.5

3271         Clay products and refractories                     0.9       0.7       1.6       0.6       0.7       4.6
3272         Glass and glass products                           1.1      -0.2       1.7       2.2       0.1       2.3
3273         Cement and concrete products                       0.6       0.5       0.4       0.9       0.6       0.2
3274         Lime and gypsum products                           0.1      -1.4      -2.4       0.7       2.8       5.0
3279         Other nonmetallic mineral products                 1.3      -1.3       2.0       0.3       3.2       1.9

3311         Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy production     1.9       1.4       2.0       2.7       1.4      -2.9
3312         Steel products from purchased steel                0.2       1.1       2.4       0.8      -3.1      -1.8
3313         Alumina and aluminum production                    0.9      -0.2      -0.6       0.6       3.2       2.1
3314         Other nonferrous metal production                 -0.4      -1.6       1.6       0.9      -2.8      -9.0
3315         Foundries                                          0.9       0.2       1.5       1.3       0.5      -0.1

3321         Forging and stamping                               1.0      -0.5       1.1       1.7       1.0      -0.7
3322         Cutlery and hand tools                            -0.2      -1.4       1.0      -0.1      -0.9       3.0
3323         Architectural and structural metals                0.3      -0.9       0.9       0.7      -0.1      -0.1
3324         Boilers, tanks, and shipping containers            0.4       0.9       1.5       0.3      -0.8      -3.2
3325         Hardware                                           0.1      -2.2       0.7       0.5       0.5       1.8
3326         Spring and wire products                           1.2       0.0       1.4       0.6       2.2       3.1
3327         Machine shops and threaded products                1.2       1.0       3.0       0.7       0.2      -0.7
3328         Coating, engraving, and heat treating metals       1.7       0.9       2.1      -0.1       3.5       6.2
3329         Other fabricated metal products                    0.1      -1.7       0.3      -0.7       1.7       0.9

3331         Agriculture, construction, and mining machinery    0.7       2.4      -0.1      -1.1       2.4       0.9
3332         Industrial machinery                               0.4       0.2       1.6       1.2      -1.3      -5.4
3333         Commercial and service industry machinery         -0.4       0.9      -0.5      -0.6      -1.1      -0.2
3334         HVAC and commercial refrigeration equipment        0.9      -0.2       0.7       0.8       1.8      -1.6
3335         Metalworking machinery                             0.7       0.1       1.3      -0.6       1.7       3.5
3336         Turbine and power transmission equipment          -0.2      -0.6       0.0       1.5      -1.6      -2.1
3339         Other general purpose machinery                    0.5       0.4       0.0       0.5       0.9       1.1

3341         Computer and peripheral equipment                 17.5       5.7      13.6      27.3      19.6      27.6
3342         Communications equipment                           3.6       3.8       4.4       6.5       0.0       5.7
3343         Audio and video equipment                          2.9       3.8       2.3       2.2       3.8      -0.4
3344         Semiconductors and electronic components          14.9       7.2      18.2      23.6       8.3       8.9
3345         Electronic instruments                             1.0       1.6       0.3      -0.3       2.7      -1.0
3346         Magnetic media manufacturing and reproduction      3.8       1.3       6.0      -0.8       8.0       6.5

3351         Electric lighting equipment                        0.6      -1.7       0.2       0.7       2.4       4.9
3352         Household appliances                               2.0      -0.4       2.5       1.0       4.0       3.4
3353         Electrical equipment                               0.3       0.5       1.9      -1.8       0.7      -1.4
3359         Other electrical equipment and components          0.4      -1.7       1.2       1.9      -0.4       1.5

3361         Motor vehicles                                     0.1       0.2      -1.3       0.0       1.6       1.3
3362         Motor vehicle bodies and trailers                 -0.1      -2.9       2.2      -1.2       0.4       0.4
3363         Motor vehicle parts                                1.5      -0.8       2.3       1.1       2.5       2.8
3364         Aerospace products and parts                      -0.7      -2.7      -1.5       0.1       0.6       0.7
3365         Railroad rolling stock                             0.6       2.2      -1.2       5.1      -3.0     -10.9
3366         Ship and boat building                             0.3       0.0      -2.0       2.3       0.8      -3.7
3369         Other transportation equipment                     1.6      -1.6       4.3       0.8       1.7       3.1

3371         Household and institutional furniture              0.7      -0.4       0.8       0.2       1.8       1.8
3372         Office furniture and fixtures                      0.5      -2.6       0.3       1.8       1.4      -0.1
3379         Other furniture-related products                   0.8       0.1       0.7       0.3       1.9      -1.4

3391         Medical equipment and supplies                     1.8       2.3       0.3       2.5       2.3       7.1
3399         Other miscellaneous manufacturing                  0.9       1.2       0.6       0.7       1.2       3.2



Last Modified Date: October 30, 2020