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Economic News Release
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U.S. Import and Export Price Indexes News Release

Transmission of material in this release is embargoed until                            USDL-23-0019
8:30 a.m. (ET) Wednesday, June 28, 2023

Technical information: (202) 691-7101 * MXPinfo@bls.gov * www.bls.gov/mxp
Media contact:	       (202) 691-5902 * PressOffice@bls.gov


                         U.S. IMPORT AND EXPORT PRICE INDEXES - April 2024

Prices for U.S. imports increased 0.4 percent in December, after declining 0.7 percent in November, the 
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. Higher nonfuel prices and fuel prices contributed to the 
December advance. U.S. export prices fell 2.6 percent in December following a 0.4-percent decrease the 
previous month. //XIMPIM Resilio Test via ZUNI3 05302024// 

Imports

U.S. import prices advanced 0.4 percent in December, the first monthly increase since the index rose 0.2 
percent in June 2022. The December advance followed a 4.6-percent decline from June to November. The 
price index for U.S. imports increased 3.5 percent over the past 12 months, driven by higher fuel and 
nonfuel prices. (See table 1.)

Fuel Imports: Import fuel prices increased 0.6 percent in December, after declining 3.7 percent in 
November. The December advance is the first monthly increase since the index rose 5.6 percent in June 
2022. Higher natural gas prices in December more than offset lower prices for petroleum. Import natural gas 
prices advanced 59.5 percent in December following a 1.5-percent increase in November. In contrast, 
petroleum prices declined 2.7 percent in December following a 4.0-percent drop in November. Prices for 
import fuel increased 19.4 percent from December 2021 to December 2022. Higher prices for both 
petroleum and natural gas drove the 12-month advance, rising 16.9 percent and 64.2 percent, respectively.

All Imports Excluding Fuel: Prices for nonfuel imports increased 0.4 percent in December, the first 1-
month advance since a 0.4-percent rise in April 2022. Higher prices for nonfuel industrial supplies and 
materials; consumer goods; foods, feeds, and beverages; capital goods; and automotive vehicles all 
contributed to the December increase. The price index for nonfuel imports rose 1.9 percent in 2022, the 
smallest calendar-year advance since a 1.9-percent increase in 2020.

Foods, Feeds, and Beverages: Import foods, feeds, and beverages prices rose 0.4 percent in December, after 
increasing 1.8 percent the previous month. The advance in December was led by an 11.1-percent increase in 
prices for feedstuff and foodgrains.

Nonfuel Industrial Supplies and Materials: Nonfuel industrial supplies and materials prices rose 1.2 percent 
in December following a 2.1-percent decline in November. The December advance was the first monthly 
rise since the index increased 0.6 percent in April 2022. Higher prices for nonferrous metals and finished 
metals in December more than offset price decreases for chemicals and selected building materials.

Finished Goods: Import prices rose for each of the major finished goods categories in December. Consumer 
goods prices advanced 0.2 percent following declines of 0.2 percent in November, 0.3 percent in October, 
and 0.2 percent in September. The price index for capital goods ticked up 0.1 percent for the second 
consecutive month in December. Higher prices for industrial and service machinery in December more than 
offset lower prices for computers, peripherals, and semiconductors. Automotive vehicles prices ticked up 
0.1 percent in December.

Table A. Percent change in Import and Export Price Indexes, selected categories
Month IMPORTS EXPORTS
All
imports
Fuel
imports
Nonfuel
imports
All
exports
Agri-
cultural
exports
Non-
agricultural
exports

2021

December

-0.4 -7.7 0.5 -1.6 0.7 -1.9

2022

January

2.0 7.3 1.4 2.8 3.0 2.8

February

1.8 10.6 0.8 3.2 2.9 3.3

March

2.9 17.8 1.2 3.9 4.5 3.8

April

0.5 0.8 0.4 1.0 1.2 1.1

May

0.5 6.1 -0.3 2.7 2.4 2.7

June

0.2 5.6 -0.6 1.1 0.0 1.2

July

-1.4 -6.9 -0.5 -3.7 -3.2 -3.8

August

-1.2 -8.6 -0.2 -1.4 -0.5 -1.4

September

-1.0 -6.3 -0.3 -0.9 (r)-0.8 (r)-0.9

October

(r)-0.3 (r)-2.2 -0.1 -0.4 (r)-0.6 (r)-0.5

November

(r)-0.7 (r)-3.7 (r)-0.3 (r)-0.4 (r)2.8 (r)-0.7

December

0.4 0.6 0.4 -2.6 -2.4 -2.7

Dec. 2020 to 2021

10.3 60.9 6.4 14.9 21.5 14.1

Dec. 2021 to 2022

3.5 19.4 1.9 5.0 9.2 4.4

Footnotes
(r) Revised

Exports 

The price index for U.S. exports fell 2.6 percent in December, after declines of 0.4 percent in both 
November and October. U.S. export prices have not increased on a monthly basis since a 1.1-percent 
advance in June 2022. Lower prices for both nonagricultural and agricultural exports drove the decrease in 
December. Prices for U.S. exports rose 5.0 percent over the past 12 months, the smallest over-the-year 
advance since a 2.5-percent increase in January 2021. (See table 2.)

Agricultural Exports: Agricultural export prices decreased 2.4 percent in December following a 2.8-
percent advance the previous month. Lower prices for corn, soybeans, meat, and wheat in December more 
than offset price increases for vegetables and fruit. The price index for agricultural exports increased 9.2 
percent in 2022.

All Exports Excluding Agriculture: Nonagricultural export prices fell 2.7 percent in December, the largest 
monthly decline since a 3.8-percent drop in July 2022. The December decrease follows declines of 0.7 
percent in November, 0.5 percent in October, and 0.9 percent in September. Lower prices for 
nonagricultural industrial supplies and materials drove the decrease in December, more than offsetting 
higher prices for capital goods, automotive vehicles, and nonagricultural foods. Despite the recent drops, 
nonagricultural export prices increased 4.4 percent over the past 12 months.

Nonagricultural Industrial Supplies and Materials: Nonagricultural industrial supplies and materials export 
prices declined 5.8 percent in December and have not recorded a 1-month increase since rising 2.4 percent 
in June 2022. The decrease in December was led by lower fuel prices.

Finished Goods: Export prices were mostly up for the major finished goods categories in December. Prices 
for capital goods increased 0.2 percent, resuming a trend of monthly increases dating back to January 2021, 
after declines of 0.1 percent in November and 0.2 percent in October. Higher prices for industrial and 
service machinery and electrical generating equipment in December more than offset lower computers, 
peripherals, and semiconductors prices. Prices for automotive vehicles rose 0.3 percent in December, after 
ticking up 0.1 percent in November. The price index for consumer goods was unchanged in December 
following a 0.3-percent decline in November.

More information for the major import and export price indexes can be found at 
www.bls.gov/web/ximpim/largest.htm.

Measures of Import and Export Prices by Locality

Imports by Locality of Origin: Prices for imports from China edged down 0.1 percent in December, after 
being unchanged in November and rising 0.5 percent in October. The December drop was led by lower 
chemical prices from China. The price index for import prices from China increased 1.1 percent over the 
past year. Import prices from Japan ticked up 0.1 percent in December following a 0.1-percent decline the 
previous month. Prices for imports from Japan rose 2.3 percent in 2022, the largest calendar-year advance 
since 2011. The price indexes for imports from Canada and Mexico each fell in December, down 0.2 
percent and 0.1 percent, respectively. Despite the declines, import prices from Canada rose 7.1 percent in 
2022 and import prices from Mexico advanced 4.2 percent. In contrast, prices for imports from the 
European Union increased in December, advancing 1.3 percent, after falling 1.2 percent in November. The 
December rise was the largest 1-month increase since March 2022. (See table 7.)

Exports by Locality of Destination: The price index for exports to China decreased 2.3 percent in 
December following a 0.3-percent drop in November. Prices for exports to China were unchanged over the 
past year. Export prices to Japan declined 2.6 percent in December, after decreasing 0.6 percent in 
November. Prices for exports to Japan have not risen on a monthly basis since a 1.9-percent increase in May 
2022. Despite the recent declines, export prices to Japan advanced 3.0 percent in 2022. The price indexes 
for exports to Mexico and the European Union also fell in December, decreasing 3.9 percent and 1.8 
percent, respectively. In contrast, export prices to Canada rose 0.2 percent in December and increased 9.0 
percent over the past year. (See table 8.)

Terms of Trade Indexes: Terms of trade indexes are based on country, region, or grouping and measure 
the change in the purchasing power of exports relative to imports. U.S. terms of trade with China declined 
2.2 percent in December following a 0.3-percent decrease in November. Lower export prices to China in 
December more than offset lower import prices from China. The index for U.S. terms of trade with China 
fell 1.1 percent in 2022, the first calendar-year drop since a 1.3-percent decline in 2018. U.S. terms of trade 
with Japan decreased 2.7 percent in December, after a 0.4-percent drop the previous month. In contrast, U.S. 
terms of trade with Canada increased 0.4 percent in December following a 0.9-percent advance in 
November. The indexes for U.S. terms of trade with Mexico and the European Union fell in December, 
declining 3.8 percent and 3.1 percent, respectively. (See table 9.)

Import and Export Services

Imports: The index for import air passenger fares advanced 5.9 percent in December following a 0.6-
percent decline in November. The December rise was the largest monthly increase since June 2022 and was 
led by higher Asian and Latin American/Caribbean fares. Import air passenger fares increased 13.4 percent 
from December 2021 to December 2022. Import air freight prices rose 11.1 percent in December, after 
declining 10.1 percent in November and 11.9 percent in October. The December increase was the largest 1-
month rise since November 2021. Despite the December advance, prices for import air freight declined 21.7 
percent over the past year. (See table 10.)

Exports: Export air passenger fares decreased 3.3 percent in December following a 0.3-percent increase in 
November. Lower December prices for Asian, European, and Latin American/Caribbean fares all 
contributed to the decline. Despite the December drop, export air passenger fares rose 7.7 percent over the 
past 12 months. Export air freight prices advanced 0.8 percent in December, the first monthly increase since 
the index rose 3.1 percent in May 2022. Prices for export air freight increased 5.9 percent for the year ended 
in December.

U.S. Import and Export Price Index data for April 2023 are scheduled for release on Wednesday, 
June 28, 2023, at 8:30 a.m. (ET).


Table 1. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: December 2021 to December 2022 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description End
Use
Relative
import-
ance
Nov.
2022(1)
Index Percent change
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2021
to
Dec.
2022
Aug.
2022
to
Sep.
2022
Sep.
2022
to
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2022
to
Nov.
2022
Nov.
2022
to
Dec.
2022

All commodities

  100.000 141.6 142.2 3.5 -1.0 -0.3 -0.7 0.4

All imports excluding food and fuels (Dec. 2010=100)

  82.324 108.2 108.6 1.7 -0.4 0.0 -0.6 0.4

All imports excluding petroleum

  90.119 123.9 124.9 2.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.3 0.8

All imports excluding fuels (Dec. 2001=100)

  89.308 127.4 127.9 1.9 -0.3 -0.1 -0.3 0.4

Foods, feeds, & beverages

0

6.984 207.7 208.5 4.0 0.4 -1.0 1.8 0.4

Agricultural foods, feeds & beverages, excluding distilled beverages

00

5.620 228.2 229.2 6.1 0.3 -1.0 2.5 0.4

Nonagricultural foods (fish, distilled beverages)

01

1.363 159.7 160.2 -3.4 0.8 -0.8 -1.4 0.3

Industrial supplies & materials

1

28.875 261.5 264.1 7.1 -3.3 -1.1 -2.7 1.0

Industrial supplies & materials excluding petroleum

  18.939 211.6 218.5 3.2 -1.6 -0.8 -1.9 3.3

Industrial supplies & materials excluding fuels (Dec. 2001=100)

  17.908 232.9 235.7 0.9 -1.4 -0.4 -2.1 1.2

Industrial supplies & materials, durable

  11.945 221.3 226.6 -0.4 -1.7 -0.3 -2.4 2.4

Industrial supplies & materials nondurable excluding petroleum

  7.049 200.7 210.2 9.7 -1.5 -1.6 -1.2 4.7

Fuels & lubricants

10

10.692 324.0 325.9 19.4 -6.3 -2.2 -3.7 0.6

Petroleum & petroleum products

100

9.881 342.8 333.5 16.9 -6.3 -1.7 -4.0 -2.7

Crude petroleum

10000

6.495 337.2 321.1 11.0 -6.6 -2.2 -3.7 -4.8

Fuels, n.e.s.-coals & gas

101

0.687 269.7 399.3 54.1 -7.1 -9.5 1.1 48.1

Natural gas

10110

0.555 257.8 411.1 64.2 -8.4 -11.8 1.5 59.5

Paper & paper base stocks

11

0.574 149.5 150.1 20.4 2.3 0.8 -2.2 0.4

Materials associated with nondurable supplies & materials

12

5.663 212.7 210.3 2.3 -1.1 -0.6 -1.5 -1.1

Selected building materials

13

1.862 198.3 194.7 -2.5 -2.4 -2.4 -0.5 -1.8

Unfinished metals related to durable goods

14

5.031 329.6 343.8 -3.2 -3.1 0.4 -3.9 4.3

Finished metals related to durable goods

15

3.291 209.8 216.2 3.4 0.4 0.1 -2.5 3.1

Nonmetals related to durable goods

16

1.761 127.3 127.3 3.2 -0.5 -1.0 0.1 0.0

Capital goods

2

26.099 93.1 93.2 2.9 -0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1

Electric generating equipment

20

3.266 128.8 129.0 4.9 -0.4 -0.5 0.4 0.2

Nonelectrical machinery

21

21.160 84.3 84.4 2.4 -0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1

Transportation equipment excluding motor vehicles (Dec. 2001=100)

22

1.674 147.5 147.9 5.9 0.4 1.7 0.1 0.3

Automotive vehicles, parts & engines

3

12.728 117.2 117.3 3.1 0.1 0.6 0.0 0.1

Consumer goods, excluding automotives

4

25.314 109.6 109.8 0.4 -0.2 -0.3 -0.2 0.2

Nondurables, manufactured

40

12.785 124.0 124.0 -0.8 0.0 -0.6 -0.1 0.0

Durables, manufactured

41

11.804 95.5 95.7 1.4 -0.3 0.1 -0.2 0.2

Nonmanufactured consumer goods

42

0.725 129.0 129.2 2.5 -0.6 -0.2 -0.6 0.2

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2020 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 2. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: December 2021 to December 2022 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description End
Use
Relative
import-
ance
Nov.
2022(1)
Index Percent change
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2021
to
Dec.
2022
Aug.
2022
to
Sep.
2022
Sep.
2022
to
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2022
to
Nov.
2022
Nov.
2022
to
Dec.
2022

All commodities

  100.000 155.5 151.4 5.0 -0.9 -0.4 -0.4 -2.6

Agricultural commodities

  12.605 258.7 252.4 9.2 -0.8 -0.6 2.8 -2.4

All exports excluding food and fuels (Dec. 2010=100)

  67.317 113.1 113.4 1.4 -0.5 -1.0 -0.2 0.3

All exports excluding fuels (June 2022=100)

  78.891 98.5 98.5 - -0.5 -0.6 0.1 0.0

Nonagricultural commodities

  87.395 147.7 143.7 4.4 -0.9 -0.5 -0.7 -2.7

Foods, feeds, & beverages

0

11.573 262.4 255.6 9.6 -0.7 -0.4 3.2 -2.6

Agricultural foods, feeds & beverages, excluding distilled beverages

00

11.135 264.5 257.4 10.2 -0.8 -0.4 3.4 -2.7

Nonagricultural foods (fish, distilled beverages)

01

0.438 223.3 223.6 -4.0 1.3 -0.3 -0.8 0.1

Industrial supplies & materials

1

42.726 224.2 211.6 5.6 -2.0 -1.0 -1.5 -5.6

Industrial supplies & materials, durable

  9.915 208.2 212.3 -0.9 -0.9 -1.1 -0.9 2.0

Industrial supplies & materials, nondurable

  32.811 226.0 208.2 8.0 -2.3 -1.0 -1.7 -7.9

Agricultural industrial supplies & materials

10

1.470 231.2 229.6 2.0 -1.4 -2.0 -1.4 -0.7

Nonagricultural industrial supplies & materials

  41.256 224.1 211.1 5.8 -2.0 -1.0 -1.5 -5.8

Fuels & lubricants

11

21.109 305.1 268.7 16.7 -2.0 0.7 -2.6 -11.9

Nonagricultural supplies & materials excluding fuels & building materials

12

19.315 195.6 197.0 -2.6 -1.9 -2.7 -0.3 0.7

Selected building materials

13

0.832 152.4 152.4 -2.3 -3.6 -2.6 -2.1 0.0

Capital goods

2

28.098 118.9 119.1 3.2 0.2 -0.2 -0.1 0.2

Electrical generating equipment

20

3.201 135.5 136.0 6.2 0.2 0.5 1.2 0.4

Nonelectrical machinery

21

20.295 100.2 100.3 2.7 0.1 -0.3 -0.3 0.1

Transportation equipment excluding motor vehicles (Dec. 2001=100)

22

4.602 198.5 198.8 3.6 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

Automotive vehicles, parts & engines

3

7.465 121.9 122.3 4.7 0.1 -0.1 0.1 0.3

Consumer goods, excluding automotives

4

10.138 116.6 116.6 2.9 -0.1 0.3 -0.3 0.0

Nondurables, manufactured

40

5.257 108.4 108.6 -1.3 -0.1 -0.2 -0.4 0.2

Durables, manufactured

41

3.935 116.1 115.8 5.5 0.3 0.8 -0.2 -0.3

Nonmanufactured consumer goods (Dec. 2018=100)

42

0.946 127.5 127.3 18.5 -0.8 -0.1 -0.7 -0.2

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2020 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 3. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes for selected industries: December 2021 to December 2022 [December 2005=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description NAICS Relative
import-
ance
Nov.
2022(1)
Index Percent change
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2021
to
Dec.
2022
Aug.
2022
to
Sep.
2022
Sep.
2022
to
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2022
to
Nov.
2022
Nov.
2022
to
Dec.
2022

Nonmanufacturing

  9.607 158.6 159.2 12.1 -5.2 -3.2 -1.2 0.4

Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting

11

2.226 210.9 211.9 4.8 0.7 -3.8 5.3 0.5

Crop production

111

1.838 224.1 223.7 4.8 0.5 -3.8 6.6 -0.2

Mining

21

7.381 158.7 159.3 14.6 -6.7 -3.0 -3.1 0.4

Oil and gas extraction

211

7.121 158.2 158.8 15.2 -6.8 -3.0 -3.4 0.4

Manufacturing

  90.090 123.1 123.5 2.7 -0.6 0.0 -0.6 0.3

Manufacturing, part 1

31

11.266 138.1 138.5 2.7 0.3 0.4 -0.3 0.3

Food manufacturing

311

4.188 185.9 187.1 4.8 0.4 0.8 -0.6 0.6

Beverage and tobacco product manufacturing

312

1.092 134.6 135.2 1.8 0.1 -0.1 0.1 0.4

Textile mills (Dec. 2011=100)

313

0.404 124.7 124.9 3.1 -0.8 -0.5 -0.5 0.2

Textile product mills

314

1.455 109.4 109.3 -2.4 0.3 0.0 -0.2 -0.1

Apparel manufacturing

315

2.965 119.7 119.6 4.3 0.3 0.5 0.1 -0.1

Leather and allied product manufacturing

316

1.162 127.1 127.5 -0.9 0.2 -0.5 -0.2 0.3

Manufacturing, part 2

32

20.861 150.4 149.6 3.4 -1.4 -1.0 -1.4 -0.5

Wood product manufacturing (Dec. 2019=100)

321

1.079 154.6 149.0 -11.4 -4.4 -4.5 -0.9 -3.6

Paper manufacturing

322

1.031 127.7 127.8 10.2 1.4 0.2 -1.7 0.1

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

324

3.143 166.4 167.2 33.4 -4.6 -0.6 -4.4 0.5

Chemical manufacturing

325

11.995 155.2 154.2 -1.4 -0.9 -1.3 -0.8 -0.6

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

326

2.520 133.3 133.1 3.2 0.3 0.0 -0.4 -0.2

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

327

0.934 141.4 142.5 3.1 -0.4 0.1 -0.3 0.8

Manufacturing, part 3

33

57.963 112.2 112.9 2.5 -0.4 0.4 -0.4 0.6

Primary metal manufacturing

331

6.716 223.8 232.9 0.6 -1.8 1.3 -4.0 4.1

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

332

3.177 149.2 150.4 3.1 -0.7 -1.1 -0.1 0.8

Machinery manufacturing

333

6.847 127.4 128.1 3.4 -0.1 -0.3 -0.1 0.5

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

334

15.940 74.1 74.1 1.4 -0.1 0.5 0.0 0.0

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

335

5.364 126.9 126.8 3.4 -0.2 -0.2 0.1 -0.1

Transportation equipment manufacturing

336

13.215 116.2 116.3 3.0 0.1 0.9 0.0 0.1

Furniture and related product manufacturing

337

1.846 128.8 129.5 4.8 0.0 -0.4 -0.1 0.5

Miscellaneous manufacturing

339

4.857 125.8 126.3 3.1 -0.6 -0.5 0.0 0.4

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2020 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 4. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes for selected industries: December 2021 to December 2022 [December 2005=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description NAICS Relative
import-
ance
Nov.
2022(1)
Index Percent change
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2021
to
Dec.
2022
Aug.
2022
to
Sep.
2022
Sep.
2022
to
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2022
to
Nov.
2022
Nov.
2022
to
Dec.
2022

Nonmanufacturing

  19.305 215.3 203.2 10.5 -2.3 -3.7 -0.5 -5.6

Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting

11

6.886 231.8 223.3 8.8 -1.9 -1.9 4.7 -3.7

Crop production

111

6.618 247.6 238.3 10.2 -1.8 -1.9 4.9 -3.8

Mining

21

12.419 136.7 127.5 11.5 -2.4 -4.5 -3.2 -6.7

Oil and gas extraction (Dec. 2021=100)

211

11.184 124.1 114.7 14.7 -2.5 -4.8 -3.6 -7.6

Mining (except oil and gas)

212

1.235 141.7 143.1 -9.5 -1.9 -1.5 0.6 1.0

Manufacturing

  79.097 136.7 133.8 4.2 -0.6 0.4 -0.4 -2.1

Manufacturing, part 1

31

7.123 179.2 177.0 6.9 -0.2 0.6 0.1 -1.2

Food manufacturing

311

5.442 213.1 209.6 7.8 0.0 0.8 0.1 -1.6

Beverage and tobacco product manufacturing

312

0.540 144.8 145.9 6.5 -1.9 0.5 1.4 0.8

Manufacturing, part 2

32

26.984 148.6 139.1 4.6 -1.7 1.3 -0.7 -6.4

Wood product manufacturing (Dec. 2017=100)

321

0.432 119.3 116.4 -14.7 -5.4 -2.4 -3.6 -2.4

Paper manufacturing

322

1.673 158.6 159.2 16.1 -0.7 0.3 1.7 0.4

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

324

8.680 193.3 155.4 22.4 -1.4 9.2 -1.8 -19.6

Chemical manufacturing

325

13.365 135.9 135.1 -3.6 -2.0 -2.7 -0.1 -0.6

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

326

2.010 130.8 131.5 3.7 -0.6 -0.1 0.2 0.5

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

327

0.674 129.2 134.0 11.4 -0.3 -3.3 -0.7 3.7

Manufacturing, part 3

33

44.991 126.5 127.0 3.7 0.0 -0.2 -0.3 0.4

Primary metal manufacturing

331

3.964 204.1 209.1 -1.5 -1.4 -1.1 -2.4 2.4

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

332

2.499 171.8 172.7 7.0 0.1 -0.3 0.2 0.5

Machinery manufacturing

333

8.094 144.0 144.2 5.5 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.1

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

334

11.659 84.0 84.0 1.0 0.1 -0.6 -0.6 0.0

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

335

3.226 133.0 133.4 7.1 0.0 0.5 1.0 0.3

Transportation equipment manufacturing

336

11.094 139.0 139.4 4.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3

Miscellaneous manufacturing

339

4.142 134.1 134.0 7.1 0.1 0.2 -0.4 -0.1

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2020 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 5. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: December 2021 to December 2022 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Harmo-
nized
system
Relative
importance
Nov.
2022(1)
Index Percent change
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2021
to
Dec.
2022
Aug.
2022
to
Sep.
2022
Sep.
2022
to
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2022
to
Nov.
2022
Nov.
2022
to
Dec.
2022

Live animals; animal products

I

1.479 226.6 225.5 -2.3 1.2 -1.2 -1.9 -0.5

Meat and edible meat offal

02

0.420 311.3 300.5 -11.1 -0.9 -3.2 -3.1 -3.5

Fish and crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates

03

0.750 156.0 157.2 -2.1 1.7 -0.4 -1.8 0.8

Vegetable products

II

2.237 246.5 255.1 9.9 0.9 -2.7 3.4 3.5

Edible vegetables, roots, and tubers

07

0.499 494.1 494.7 29.2 11.8 -3.4 2.0 0.1

Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons

08

0.798 120.3 122.0 0.9 -6.2 -4.0 14.7 1.4

Coffee, tea, mate and spices

09

0.411 290.7 286.2 -3.9 0.7 -1.8 -8.3 -1.5

Animal or vegetable fats and oils (Dec. 2009=100)

III

0.442 154.0 151.9 2.4 -0.4 1.6 0.7 -1.4

Prepared foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco

IV

3.286 190.6 191.2 5.6 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.3

Sugars and sugar confectionary (Dec. 2021=100)

17

0.219 107.7 107.4 7.4 -1.0 1.7 -0.4 -0.3

Cocoa and cocoa preparations (Dec. 2009=100)

18

0.217 110.9 111.9 12.1 0.3 -0.3 8.5 0.9

Beverages, spirits, and vinegar

22

1.066 147.7 148.5 1.4 0.0 -0.1 0.3 0.5

Mineral products

V

10.677 331.6 333.2 19.5 -5.9 -2.2 -3.5 0.5

Mineral fuels, oils and residuals, bituminous substances and mineral waxes

27

10.317 326.0 327.6 20.4 -6.0 -2.2 -3.7 0.5

Products of the chemical or allied industries

VI

11.207 174.2 173.3 -0.8 -0.8 -1.1 -0.3 -0.5

Inorganic chemicals

28

0.781 551.5 548.4 7.9 1.4 0.9 0.4 -0.6

Organic chemicals

29

2.571 144.7 143.7 -2.1 -3.2 -0.9 -0.2 -0.7

Pharmaceutical products

30

5.148 145.1 145.1 -3.9 -0.3 -1.5 -0.1 0.0

Miscellaneous chemical products

38

0.836 119.5 119.7 3.5 0.4 0.4 -0.2 0.2

Plastics and articles thereof; rubber and articles thereof

VII

3.745 157.9 157.6 -0.6 -0.7 -0.2 -1.4 -0.2

Plastics and articles thereof

39

2.579 159.7 159.2 -2.7 -1.3 -0.1 -1.9 -0.3

Rubber and articles thereof

40

1.166 157.8 157.8 4.2 0.6 -0.3 -0.3 0.0

Articles of leather; travel goods, bags, etc. of various materials

42

0.414 140.8 140.2 0.5 0.2 -1.1 -0.4 -0.4

Wood, wood charcoal, cork, straw, basketware and wickerwork

IX

1.148 235.1 225.7 -8.4 -3.9 -4.3 -0.5 -4.0

Wood and articles of wood; wood charcoal (Dec. 2019=100)

44

1.115 164.3 157.6 -8.5 -3.9 -4.5 -0.5 -4.1

Woodpulp, recovered paper, and paper products

X

1.007 134.2 134.3 10.6 1.5 0.1 -2.1 0.1

Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, paper or paperboard

48

0.677 124.9 125.8 15.7 1.3 0.2 0.3 0.7

Textile and textile articles

XI

4.662 121.2 121.0 2.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 -0.2

Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, not knitted or crocheted

62

1.299 127.7 127.8 3.3 0.1 0.9 0.2 0.1

Made-up or worn textile articles

63

1.192 103.0 102.8 -3.2 0.4 0.0 0.1 -0.2

Headgear, umbrellas, artificial flowers, etc.

XII

1.022 127.1 127.2 -0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1

Footwear and parts of such articles

64

0.819 124.1 124.2 -1.3 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1

Stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, ceramics, glass etc.

XIII

0.798 133.9 134.8 2.1 -0.2 0.1 -0.3 0.7

Articles of stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, or mica (Dec. 2020=100)

68

0.299 102.3 102.4 3.1 -0.5 0.5 0.0 0.1

Glass and glassware (Dec. 2021=100)

70

0.274 100.9 100.3 0.3 0.1 -0.1 -0.5 -0.6

Pearls, stones, precious metals, imitation jewelry, and coins

XIV

4.394 222.0 232.9 2.8 -2.2 1.6 -3.7 4.9

Base metals and articles of base metals

XV

5.881 233.5 236.6 0.9 -1.1 -0.9 -1.5 1.3

Iron and steel

72

1.128 313.0 305.7 -2.2 0.5 0.2 -5.7 -2.3

Articles of iron or steel

73

1.867 204.2 204.0 3.5 -0.8 -0.9 0.2 -0.1

Copper and articles thereof

74

0.447 355.9 377.2 -8.1 -0.2 -0.8 2.7 6.0

Aluminum and articles thereof

76

1.025 182.8 189.9 -1.5 -3.0 -2.4 -1.7 3.9

Tools, implements, cutlery, spoons and forks, of base metal; parts thereof

82

0.415 129.2 129.8 2.2 -0.1 0.0 -0.4 0.5

Miscellaneous articles of base metal

83

0.530 151.0 150.3 3.3 -0.2 -1.3 0.2 -0.5

Machinery, electrical equipment, TV image and sound recorders, parts, etc.

XVI

28.292 82.8 82.8 2.0 -0.2 0.4 0.0 0.0

Machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof

84

14.567 89.4 89.6 2.5 -0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2

Electrical machinery and equip, sound and TV recorders & reproducers, parts

85

13.725 76.5 76.5 1.5 -0.1 0.4 -0.1 0.0

Vehicles, aircraft, vessels and associated transport equipment

XVII

11.168 121.2 121.2 3.3 0.1 1.0 0.1 0.0

Motor vehicles and their parts

87

10.351 120.3 120.3 3.2 0.1 0.8 0.1 0.0

Aircraft, spacecraft, and parts thereof (Dec. 2020=100)

88

0.726 107.8 107.9 6.9 0.3 3.7 0.0 0.1

Optical, photo, measuring, medical & musical instruments; & timepieces

XVIII

3.780 105.3 105.6 3.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3

Optical, photographic, measuring and medical instruments

90

3.573 101.4 101.6 3.6 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

XX

4.252 119.4 120.1 3.6 0.1 -0.3 -0.3 0.6

Furniture & stuffed furnishings; lamps & lighting fittings, nesoi; prefab bldgs

94

2.579 127.6 128.2 3.3 -0.1 -0.4 -0.1 0.5

Toys, games and sports equipment; parts and accessories thereof

95

1.408 105.9 106.6 3.8 0.1 0.0 -0.6 0.7

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

96

0.264 138.0 138.1 5.6 0.4 0.0 1.4 0.1

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2020 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 6. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: December 2021 to December 2022 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Harmo-
nized
system
Relative
import-
ance
Nov.
2022(1)
Index Percent change
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2021
to
Dec.
2022
Aug.
2022
to
Sep.
2022
Sep.
2022
to
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2022
to
Nov.
2022
Nov.
2022
to
Dec.
2022

Live animals; animal products

I

2.264 280.1 273.5 -1.1 -1.2 0.1 -0.4 -2.4

Meat & edible meat offal (Dec. 2006=100)

02

1.430 221.3 212.4 -6.6 -1.1 0.0 -1.5 -4.0

Vegetable products

II

6.491 305.5 293.0 12.0 -2.4 -1.6 5.6 -4.1

Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons

08

0.888 136.8 138.0 -8.0 -5.0 0.7 4.3 0.9

Cereals

10

2.065 358.0 328.1 8.3 0.1 3.9 3.1 -8.4

Oilseeds and misc. grains, seeds, fruits, plants, straw and fodder

12

2.843 317.7 308.0 17.2 -2.8 -6.0 5.2 -3.1

Prepared foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco

IV

3.060 189.5 188.0 9.7 1.3 1.3 1.0 -0.8

Miscellaneous edible preparations (Dec. 2017=100)

21

0.584 109.2 109.7 6.1 -0.4 1.9 -0.5 0.5

Beverages, spirits, and vinegar (Dec. 2008=100)

22

0.451 107.6 108.1 -1.7 0.0 -0.4 -0.3 0.5

Residues and waste from the food industries; prepared animal feed

23

1.004 357.6 342.2 17.7 4.6 2.9 3.1 -4.3

Mineral products

V

21.040 366.1 322.2 15.2 -2.0 0.6 -2.7 -12.0

Ores, slag and ash (Dec. 2012=100)

26

0.483 120.9 125.4 -12.6 -1.3 -6.1 1.9 3.7

Mineral fuels, oils and residuals, bituminous substances and mineral waxes

27

20.376 354.9 310.6 16.2 -2.1 0.7 -2.8 -12.5

Products of the chemical or allied industries

VI

11.465 165.2 165.0 4.0 -1.2 -0.1 -0.2 -0.1

Organic chemicals

29

2.782 197.0 192.9 3.3 -4.1 -0.2 0.1 -2.1

Pharmaceutical products

30

3.046 105.1 105.5 -2.7 0.3 -0.2 -0.7 0.4

Essential oils and resinoids; perfumery cosmetic or toilet preparations

33

0.792 141.2 141.1 2.7 0.1 0.2 -0.1 -0.1

Soap; lubricants; waxes, polishing or scouring products; candles, pastes

34

0.436 135.4 135.4 3.3 -0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0

Miscellaneous chemical products

38

2.136 184.3 183.9 -0.3 -1.9 0.8 -0.4 -0.2

Plastics and articles thereof; rubber and articles thereof

VII

4.600 157.2 157.0 -10.6 -1.8 -5.5 -0.1 -0.1

Plastics and articles thereof

39

3.890 154.8 154.2 -12.6 -2.1 -6.4 -0.1 -0.4

Rubber and articles thereof

40

0.709 166.8 168.6 2.3 0.2 -0.3 0.0 1.1

Wood, wood charcoal, cork, straw, baskets and wickerwork (Dec. 2014=100)

IX

0.512 113.9 111.7 -14.6 -6.2 -2.9 -3.7 -1.9

Woodpulp, recovered paper, and paper products

X

1.822 153.7 154.0 6.9 -0.7 -5.0 2.3 0.2

Woodpulp and recovered paper (Dec. 2019=100)

47

0.666 174.0 173.3 4.2 -2.1 -12.2 5.9 -0.4

Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, paper or paperboard

48

0.954 148.5 149.4 10.6 0.5 -0.5 0.4 0.6

Textile and textile articles

XI

1.616 146.4 145.0 2.0 -0.6 -2.3 -2.3 -1.0

Cotton, including yarns and woven fabrics thereof

52

0.692 179.6 177.1 1.7 -0.8 -4.7 -4.8 -1.4

Stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, ceramics, glass etc.

XIII

0.664 145.3 148.0 13.1 0.1 -1.3 -0.2 1.9

Glass and glassware (Dec. 2019=100)

70

0.406 112.6 112.6 13.9 0.1 1.3 0.0 0.0

Pearls, stones, precious metals, imitation jewelry, and coins

XIV

3.707 308.6 317.4 2.3 -1.7 0.1 -2.3 2.9

Base metals and articles of base metals

XV

4.359 207.0 209.5 0.2 0.9 -1.4 0.0 1.2

Iron and steel (Dec. 2020=100)

72

1.186 158.1 161.2 -4.6 3.6 -3.4 0.6 2.0

Copper and articles thereof

74

0.498 244.2 251.3 -6.5 0.4 0.5 0.2 2.9

Aluminum and articles thereof

76

0.749 142.8 145.7 -1.8 -0.4 -1.0 -0.7 2.0

Machinery, electrical equipment, TV image and sound recorders, parts, etc.

XVI

23.313 104.6 104.7 3.8 0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0.1

Machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof

84

13.464 125.2 125.4 4.1 0.2 -0.2 -0.2 0.2

Electrical machinery and equipment and parts and accessories thereof

85

9.850 82.6 82.6 3.3 0.1 -0.1 0.1 0.0

Vehicles, aircraft, vessels and associated transport equipment

XVII

8.195 148.2 148.7 4.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3

Motor vehicles and their parts

87

6.143 124.4 124.8 3.8 0.2 -0.1 0.1 0.3

Optical, photo, measuring, medical & musical instruments; & timepieces

XVIII

5.056 113.8 114.2 2.1 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3 0.4

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

XX

1.113 134.0 134.1 10.4 0.8 1.3 -0.4 0.1

Furniture; stuffed furnishings; lamps and lighting fittings nesoi

94

0.568 148.8 148.8 4.6 0.0 0.0 -1.1 0.0

Toys, games and sports equipment; parts and accessories thereof

95

0.394 113.3 113.6 20.3 2.2 3.8 0.0 0.3

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2020 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


Table 7. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes by locality of origin: December 2021 to December 2022 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Relative
import-
ance
Nov.
2022(1)
Index Percent change
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2021
to
Dec.
2022
Aug.
2022
to
Sep.
2022
Sep.
2022
to
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2022
to
Nov.
2022
Nov.
2022
to
Dec.
2022

Industrialized Countries(2)

100.000 146.3 148.3 5.0 -1.5 -0.6 -1.2 1.4

Nonmanufacturing

12.566 274.5 284.3 15.2 -7.1 -3.2 -2.0 3.6

Manufacturing

86.745 136.2 137.6 4.1 -0.7 0.0 -1.1 1.0

Canada

100.000 186.2 185.8 7.1 -2.9 -2.0 -1.1 -0.2

Nonmanufacturing

33.117 272.6 282.2 15.6 -7.2 -3.3 -2.1 3.5

Manufacturing

65.967 166.9 163.4 3.9 -0.9 -1.1 -0.5 -2.1

European Union

100.000 150.8 152.7 4.0 -0.6 -0.1 -1.2 1.3

Manufacturing

98.868 146.3 148.4 4.3 -0.5 -0.2 -1.3 1.4

France (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 141.9 142.0 3.2 0.2 0.0 -0.5 0.1

Germany (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 123.9 124.3 4.4 -0.4 0.2 -0.2 0.3

United Kingdom (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 132.2 134.7 2.8 -1.5 0.1 -1.8 1.9

Latin America(3)

100.000 170.4 169.2 4.5 -0.5 0.0 0.0 -0.7

Nonmanufacturing

16.523 337.3 328.5 9.0 -2.0 -3.4 0.3 -2.6

Manufacturing

83.211 136.7 136.3 3.8 -0.2 0.7 -0.1 -0.3

Mexico (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 141.6 141.4 4.2 0.0 0.0 -0.1 -0.1

Nonmanufacturing (Dec. 2008=100)

9.842 160.2 154.8 6.2 2.3 -4.8 -1.4 -3.4

Manufacturing (Dec. 2008=100)

89.896 97.0 97.2 4.1 -0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2

Pacific Rim (Dec. 2003=100)(4)

100.000 104.4 104.4 1.4 -0.3 0.2 -0.1 0.0

China (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 104.6 104.5 1.1 0.0 0.5 0.0 -0.1

Japan

100.000 101.2 101.3 2.3 0.1 1.1 -0.1 0.1

Taiwan (Dec. 2018=100)

100.000 111.3 110.8 3.6 -0.6 0.2 -0.1 -0.4

Asian NICs(5)

100.000 98.7 97.2 2.7 -1.0 0.5 -0.1 -1.5

ASEAN (Dec. 2003=100)(6)

100.000 103.3 103.0 1.2 -0.6 0.0 -0.2 -0.3

Asia Near East (Dec. 2003=100)(7)

100.000 238.1 225.0 6.6 -3.6 0.8 -1.6 -5.5

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2020 trade values.
(2) Western Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
(3) Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.
(4) China, Japan, Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Macao, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, and the Asian Newly Industrialized Countries.
(5) Asian Newly Industrialized Countries - Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan.
(6) Association of Southeast Asian Nations - Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.
(7) Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Regions are not mutually exclusive.
Dash = Not available


Table 8. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes by locality of destination: December 2021 to December 2022 [December 2017=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Relative
import-
ance
Nov.
2022(1)
Index Percent change
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2021
to
Dec.
2022
Aug.
2022
to
Sep.
2022
Sep.
2022
to
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2022
to
Nov.
2022
Nov.
2022
to
Dec.
2022

Industrialized Countries(2)

100.000 121.2 120.5 5.3 -1.1 0.2 -0.7 -0.6

Nonmanufacturing

15.505 153.3 148.0 9.3 -3.6 -3.6 -1.6 -3.5

Manufacturing

82.929 117.5 117.4 4.7 -0.5 0.9 -0.5 -0.1

Canada

100.000 129.4 129.6 9.0 -1.2 0.9 -0.2 0.2

Nonmanufacturing (Dec. 2020=100)

11.915 161.8 160.8 17.0 -3.6 -5.9 2.0 -0.6

Manufacturing (Dec. 2020=100)

86.808 119.5 119.7 8.1 -0.8 2.0 -0.6 0.2

European Union

100.000 119.1 116.9 3.8 -1.6 0.4 -0.3 -1.8

Nonmanufacturing

18.924 146.5 137.3 3.2 -6.4 0.1 -1.7 -6.3

Manufacturing

79.325 114.1 113.0 3.7 -0.2 0.4 -0.2 -1.0

Germany

100.000 113.3 113.4 5.7 -0.7 0.1 -0.3 0.1

Latin America(3)

100.000 135.7 127.5 5.6 -0.9 0.1 -1.2 -6.0

Nonmanufacturing

11.852 193.9 187.3 7.5 0.6 -12.6 -7.0 -3.4

Manufacturing

87.738 131.2 122.7 5.5 -0.8 2.3 -0.4 -6.5

Mexico

100.000 131.4 126.3 3.8 -0.8 -1.0 -2.2 -3.9

Nonmanufacturing

10.091 174.3 173.8 10.5 4.4 -19.3 -11.7 -0.3

Manufacturing

89.630 128.6 123.1 3.2 -1.5 1.9 -1.0 -4.3

Pacific Rim(4)

100.000 118.5 116.7 2.3 -1.5 -0.4 -0.2 -1.5

Nonmanufacturing

25.648 142.2 135.4 0.1 -3.9 -1.0 -0.1 -4.8

Manufacturing

72.458 113.5 112.9 3.5 -0.5 -0.3 -0.1 -0.5

China

100.000 113.3 110.7 0.0 -2.5 -1.6 -0.3 -2.3

Nonmanufacturing

33.586 123.9 116.3 -0.5 -5.7 -4.0 -0.3 -6.1

Manufacturing

65.078 111.6 111.0 0.5 -0.6 -0.4 -0.1 -0.5

Japan

100.000 119.8 116.7 3.0 -2.2 -0.1 -0.6 -2.6

Nonmanufacturing

31.399 157.9 146.4 9.7 -5.5 0.2 -1.0 -7.3

Manufacturing

67.224 107.8 107.3 0.2 -0.6 -0.2 -0.4 -0.5

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2020 trade values.
(2) Western Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
(3) Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.
(4) China, Japan, Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Macao, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, and the Asian Newly Industrialized Countries.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Regions are not mutually exclusive.
Dash = Not available


Table 9. U.S. terms of trade indexes and percent changes by locality: December 2021 to December 2022(1) [December 2017=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Index Percent change
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2021
to
Dec.
2022
Aug.
2022
to
Sep.
2022
Sep.
2022
to
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2022
to
Nov.
2022
Nov.
2022
to
Dec.
2022

Industrialized Countries(2)

101.4 99.5 0.4 0.4 0.7 0.6 -1.9

Canada

91.3 91.7 1.9 1.9 3.0 0.9 0.4

European Union

106.3 103.0 -0.2 -0.9 0.5 0.9 -3.1

Germany

105.3 105.0 1.3 -0.4 0.0 -0.1 -0.3

Latin America(3)

118.6 112.2 1.1 -0.3 0.1 -1.2 -5.4

Mexico

119.7 115.2 -0.4 -0.8 -1.0 -2.1 -3.8

Pacific Rim(4)

111.7 110.0 0.9 -1.1 -0.6 -0.1 -1.5

China

108.4 106.0 -1.1 -2.5 -2.1 -0.3 -2.2

Japan

113.1 110.0 0.6 -2.3 -1.1 -0.4 -2.7

Footnotes
(1) Terms of trade indexes are derived by dividing the export price index by the corresponding import price index and multiplying by 100.
(2) Western Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
(3) Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.
(4) China, Japan, Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Macao, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, and the Asian Newly Industrialized Countries.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Regions are not mutually exclusive.
Dash = Not available


Table 10. U.S. international price indexes and percent changes for selected transportation services: December 2021 to December 2022 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Relative
import-
ance
Nov.
2022(1)
Index Percent change
Nov.
2022
Dec.
2022
Annual Monthly
Dec.
2021
to
Dec.
2022
Aug.
2022
to
Sep.
2022
Sep.
2022
to
Oct.
2022
Oct.
2022
to
Nov.
2022
Nov.
2022
to
Dec.
2022

Air Freight

Import Air Freight

100.000 254.6 282.8 -21.7 -1.2 -11.9 -10.1 11.1

Europe (Dec. 2003=100)

28.830 242.8 259.5 -18.0 -0.1 -6.7 -1.9 6.9

Asia

70.855 240.6 271.6 -23.0 -1.5 -13.6 -13.1 12.9

Export Air Freight

100.000 191.8 193.4 5.9 -1.9 -3.3 -2.9 0.8

Europe (Dec. 2006=100)

26.184 146.6 156.2 -1.2 -1.5 -7.9 -2.4 6.5

Asia (Dec. 2011=100)

51.785 155.4 149.9 6.7 -4.3 2.4 -4.5 -3.5

Inbound Air Freight

100.000 192.8 199.9 -27.8 -2.5 -9.6 -9.0 3.7

Europe (Dec. 2003=100)

26.696 166.6 185.5 -11.4 2.0 -6.7 -1.8 11.3

Asia

62.214 182.1 184.4 -34.6 -4.2 -11.5 -13.5 1.3

Outbound Air Freight

100.000 195.2 200.9 -5.1 6.3 -1.2 -14.4 2.9

Europe (Dec. 2003=100)

30.662 191.3 189.1 4.9 -1.1 0.1 -1.7 -1.2

Asia

52.693 211.8 227.2 -10.2 11.4 0.3 -21.9 7.3

Air Passenger Fares

Import Air Passenger Fares

100.000 187.0 198.1 13.4 4.7 4.4 -0.6 5.9

Europe

36.695 198.7 194.6 12.9 15.2 3.0 -5.7 -2.1

Asia

19.038 182.6 206.2 20.7 -1.3 -2.8 -3.9 12.9

Latin America/Caribbean

14.079 169.1 193.9 20.4 -7.1 10.8 9.6 14.7

Export Air Passenger Fares

100.000 191.0 184.7 7.7 -3.7 -1.6 0.3 -3.3

Europe

25.559 218.1 208.6 1.6 5.5 -4.3 -2.4 -4.4

Asia

24.695 217.1 203.0 7.9 -10.1 -5.0 6.9 -6.5

Latin America/Caribbean

33.225 192.1 188.9 23.0 -6.8 3.3 -0.1 -1.7

Footnotes
(1) Relative importance figures are based on 2020 trade values.

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available


                                                TECHNICAL NOTE                                                

Import and Export Goods and Services Price Indexes - All indexes use a modified Laspeyres 
formula and are not seasonally adjusted. Price indexes are reweighted annually, with a 2-year lag in the 
weights. Published series use a base year of 2000=100 where possible. More detailed index series and 
additional information may be obtained at www.bls.gov/mxp or by calling (202) 691-7101.

Merchandise Goods Classification Systems - The merchandise price indexes are published using three 
classification systems. Items are classified by end use according to the Bureau of Economic Analysis 
Classification System, by industry according to the North American Industry Classification System 
(NAICS), and by product category according to the Harmonized System (HS). While classification by 
end use and product category are self-explanatory, some notes are in order for classifying items by 
industry. In the NAICS imports and exports tables, items are classified by output industry, not input 
industry. As an example, NAICS import index 326 (plastics and rubber products manufacturing) 
includes outputs such as manufactured plastic rather than inputs such as petroleum. The NAICS 
classification structure also matches the classification system used by the Producer Price Index (PPI) to 
produce the NAICS primary products indexes.

Import Price Goods Indexes - Items are classified by the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United 
States Annotated (TSUSA). Import prices are based on U.S. dollar prices paid by the U.S. importer. The 
prices are generally either "free on board" (f.o.b.) foreign port or "cost, insurance, and freight" (c.i.f.) 
U.S. port transaction prices, depending on the practices of the individual industry. The index for crude 
petroleum is calculated from data collected by the U.S. Department of Energy.  

Export Price Goods Indexes - Items are classified by the Harmonized Schedule B classification system 
of the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The prices used are generally either "free alongside ship" (f.a.s.) 
factory or "free on board" (f.o.b.) transaction prices, depending on the practices of the individual 
industry. Prices used in the grain index, excluding rice, are obtained from the U.S. Department of 
Agriculture.

Services Price Indexes - Indexes for import and export air passenger fares calculate changes in the 
average revenue received per passenger by foreign carriers from U.S. residents and by U.S. carriers from 
foreign residents, respectively. Data are obtained from an airline consulting service and report on tickets 
sold by travel agencies, travel websites, and directly by the airlines. Taxes and fees are included in both 
the import and export air passenger fares indexes. Import air passenger fares data have used the airline 
consulting service source since September 2008. Before April 2018, the export air passenger fares data 
were collected directly by BLS from U.S. airlines. The air freight indexes are calculated from data 
collected directly from airlines. These data exclude mail and passenger baggage. The scope of the 
service being priced is the movement of freight from airport to airport only, and does not include any 
ground transportation or port service. The air freight indexes are presented using two definitions: 
balance of payments (which represents transactions between U.S. and foreign residents) and 
international (which represents transactions inbound to and outbound from the United States.) Fact 
sheets specifying detailed information for each services industry are available at www.bls.gov/mxp 
under "MXP Publications."

Import Price Indexes by Locality of Origin - Prices used in these indexes are a subset of the data 
collected for the import price indexes. The indexes are specific to a country, region, or grouping and, 
beginning with January 2002, are based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 
covering goods-producing industries. Nonmanufactured goods are defined as NAICS 11 and 21, and 
manufactured goods are defined as NAICS 31-33. 

Export Price Indexes by Locality of Destination - Prices used in these indexes are a subset of the data 
collected for the export price indexes. The indexes are specific to a country, region, or grouping and are 
based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) covering goods-producing 
industries. Nonmanufactured goods are defined as NAICS 11 and 21, and manufactured goods are 
defined as NAICS 31-33. 

Terms of Trade Indexes - Terms of trade indexes measure the relative price of exports in terms of 
import prices for a specific country, region, or grouping. The indexes are calculated as one country, 
region, or grouping's all-export goods price index divided by the corresponding all-import goods price 
index on a scale of 100. 
   
Relative Importance - A relative importance is a specific index's price-updated value share (expressed 
as a percentage) of overall imports or exports at a specific point in time. Relative importance values are 
affected by the trade weights at the point indexes are reweighted and index changes relative to other 
indexes since the reweight point. If an index is rising in value relative to other indexes over time, the 
relative importance will increase as well. 
 
Revision Policy - To reflect the availability of late reports and corrections by respondents, monthly data 
may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication. After 3 months, no further data 
revisions take place. For example, data first published in the January release will be subject to revision 
in the releases for February, March, and April.

Rounding Policy - Index values are rounded to the tenth decimal place after being calculated. All 
percent changes are then derived from the rounded index values and subsequently rounded to the tenth 
decimal place.

Uses of the Data - The primary use of the indexes is to deflate trade statistics, notably the foreign trade 
sector of the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) constructed by the Department of 
Commerce. Other published indexes are useful for general market analysis. For trade in international 
services, balance of payments indexes are used for deflating NIPA, while international indexes are more 
appropriate for market analysis. 

Email Subscription - The U.S. import and export price indexes news release is available through an 
email subscription service at www.bls.gov/bls/list.htm. 
 
Additional Information - More detailed data are available on the Import/Export Price Indexes home 
page at www.bls.gov/mxp. For import and export price indexes data requests, send an email to 
mxpinfo@bls.gov.   

If you are deaf, hard of hearing, or have a speech disability, please dial 7-1-1 to access 
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Last Modified Date: May 30, 2024