Many trade associations, professional societies, unions, industrial organizations, and government agencies provide career information that is valuable to counselors and jobseekers. For the convenience of Occupational Outlook Handbook (OOH) users, some of these organizations and their Internet addresses are listed at the end of each occupational profile. Although these references were carefully compiled, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) has neither the authority nor the facilities to investigate the organizations or the information or publications made available to BLS. As a result, BLS cannot guarantee the accuracy of such information and the listing of an organization does not constitute in any way an endorsement or recommendation by BLS, either of the organization and its activities or of the information the organization may supply. Each organization has sole responsibility for whatever information it issues.

The OOH describes the job outlook over a projected 10-year period for occupations across the nation; consequently, short-term labor market fluctuations and regional differences in job outlook generally are not discussed. Similarly, the OOH provides a general, composite description of jobs and cannot be expected to reflect work situations in specific establishments or localities. The OOH, therefore, is not intended to, and should never, be used for any legal purpose. For example, the OOH should not be used as a guide for determining wages, hours of work, the right of a particular union to represent workers, appropriate bargaining units, or formal job evaluation systems. Wage data in the OOH should not be used to compute the future loss of earnings in adjudication proceedings involving work injuries or accidental deaths.

BLS has no role in establishing educational, licensing, or practicing standards for any occupation; any such standards are established by national accrediting organizations and are merely reported by BLS in the OOH. The education information in the OOH presents the typical requirements for entry into the given occupation and does not describe the education and training of those individuals already employed in the occupation. In addition, education requirements for occupations may change over time and often vary by employer or state. Therefore, the information in the OOH should not be used to determine if an applicant is qualified to enter a specific job in an occupation.

All text, charts, and tables presented are in the public domain and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced without permission. Most photographs and illustrations are protected by copyright. Comments about the contents of this publication and suggestions for improving it are welcome. Address all comments to Chief, Division of Occupational Employment Projections, Office of Occupational Statistics and Employment Projections, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, 2 Massachusetts Ave. NE, Room 2135, Washington, DC 20212. Phone: (202) 691-5700. FAX: (202) 691-5745. Email: Contact us. Additional information is available at https://www.bls.gov/ooh/. Information in the OOH is available upon request to individuals with sensory impairments. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; Federal Relay Service: (800) 877-8339.

Last Modified Date: Tuesday, October 24, 2017