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Nonfarm business productivity down 5.2 percent, unit labor costs up 9.6 percent, third quarter 2021

December 13, 2021

Nonfarm business sector labor productivity decreased at an annual rate of 5.2 percent in the third quarter of 2021. That was the largest decline in quarterly productivity since the second quarter of 1960, when productivity decreased 6.1 percent. In the third quarter of 2021, output increased 1.8 percent and hours worked increased 7.4 percent.

Nonfarm business productivity and costs, percent change from previous quarter at annual rate, second quarter 1947 to third quarter 2021
Quarter Labor productivity Output Hours worked Unit labor costs Hourly compensation Real hourly compensation

Q2 1947

9.5% 9.5% 0.1% -0.1% 9.4% 3.4%

Q3 1947

-11.7 -10.8 1.1 27.3 12.5 3.1

Q4 1947

18.0 22.6 3.9 -7.0 9.9 -1.8

Q1 1948

1.8 4.4 2.6 7.9 9.7 1.0

Q2 1948

-1.0 -1.2 -0.2 6.6 5.5 -1.0

Q3 1948

0.4 3.3 2.9 8.0 8.5 1.5

Q4 1948

1.8 -2.0 -3.7 2.2 4.0 7.9

Q1 1949

4.2 -2.7 -6.6 -1.6 2.5 6.5

Q2 1949

4.3 -2.5 -6.5 -3.3 0.9 1.3

Q3 1949

9.8 5.2 -4.2 -8.1 0.9 4.3

Q4 1949

-2.2 -3.8 -1.6 1.0 -1.3 -0.3

Q1 1950

14.4 18.0 3.2 -3.2 10.7 12.1

Q2 1950

5.0 15.8 10.3 3.7 8.9 5.6

Q3 1950

8.9 23.4 13.2 -0.8 8.0 0.5

Q4 1950

0.7 4.5 3.7 9.6 10.4 1.9

Q1 1951

0.5 7.4 6.9 9.4 9.9 -6.3

Q2 1951

-1.2 2.0 3.3 10.5 9.2 5.0

Q3 1951

9.3 5.1 -3.9 -4.3 4.6 4.8

Q4 1951

1.2 1.4 0.2 6.6 7.8 1.7

Q1 1952

2.1 4.7 2.6 2.2 4.3 2.7

Q2 1952

-0.8 -2.4 -1.7 3.9 3.0 2.0

Q3 1952

-2.0 0.9 2.9 7.1 5.0 2.2

Q4 1952

8.6 20.7 11.2 1.6 10.4 9.8

Q1 1953

3.5 7.9 4.2 1.1 4.6 5.9

Q2 1953

1.0 1.7 0.7 3.8 4.9 3.2

Q3 1953

1.7 -2.3 -3.9 2.6 4.3 2.4

Q4 1953

-1.3 -7.4 -6.2 5.5 4.1 3.3

Q1 1954

0.8 -4.5 -5.3 2.6 3.5 2.5

Q2 1954

2.8 -0.2 -3.0 -2.3 0.5 1.1

Q3 1954

7.4 5.8 -1.5 -3.9 3.2 4.3

Q4 1954

4.5 9.9 5.1 -0.6 4.0 5.3

Q1 1955

8.1 15.2 6.6 -4.9 2.7 2.2

Q2 1955

1.4 6.8 5.3 1.9 3.3 3.9

Q3 1955

1.5 5.8 4.2 5.8 7.3 7.0

Q4 1955

-1.5 3.4 4.9 5.2 3.7 2.4

Q1 1956

-4.7 -2.4 2.5 11.6 6.4 6.3

Q2 1956

2.0 2.9 0.9 5.8 7.9 5.1

Q3 1956

-0.1 -1.7 -1.6 6.4 6.3 2.0

Q4 1956

4.4 6.7 2.2 2.4 6.9 3.3

Q1 1957

4.7 5.1 0.4 1.1 5.8 2.4

Q2 1957

-1.6 -2.4 -0.8 5.8 4.1 0.6

Q3 1957

5.8 3.7 -1.9 -0.3 5.5 1.7

Q4 1957

1.4 -6.8 -8.1 4.1 5.6 3.5

Q1 1958

-5.3 -13.6 -8.7 5.7 0.1 -4.5

Q2 1958

7.8 1.7 -5.7 -3.9 3.7 0.9

Q3 1958

7.7 13.0 4.9 1.7 9.6 9.8

Q4 1958

7.0 13.5 6.1 -5.0 1.6 1.2

Q1 1959

0.5 8.5 8.0 3.4 3.9 3.2

Q2 1959

3.9 12.0 7.8 -0.5 3.4 2.7

Q3 1959

0.5 -0.6 -1.2 1.8 2.4 0.3

Q4 1959

-1.3 -1.2 0.1 5.2 4.0 1.4

Q1 1960

9.7 12.4 2.5 -0.8 8.8 8.4

Q2 1960

-6.1 -5.4 0.7 9.3 2.7 0.2

Q3 1960

2.4 0.1 -2.2 0.0 2.4 2.2

Q4 1960

-5.1 -8.6 -3.7 7.3 1.8 -0.8

Q1 1961

5.2 2.9 -2.2 -1.6 3.6 2.7

Q2 1961

11.0 9.9 -0.9 -4.7 5.7 5.8

Q3 1961

7.0 9.5 2.4 -3.7 3.0 1.4

Q4 1961

3.4 8.8 5.2 -0.5 2.9 2.3

Q1 1962

6.7 8.3 1.5 -0.2 6.5 4.9

Q2 1962

-1.6 3.2 4.9 4.4 2.7 1.2

Q3 1962

6.8 6.0 -0.8 -3.7 2.9 1.7

Q4 1962

3.1 0.5 -2.5 0.6 3.7 2.7

Q1 1963

1.2 3.6 2.4 2.9 4.0 2.7

Q2 1963

3.1 5.7 2.6 -1.0 2.1 1.3

Q3 1963

10.2 11.4 1.1 -5.5 4.1 1.6

Q4 1963

-0.3 2.9 3.2 5.0 4.6 3.5

Q1 1964

3.1 11.3 7.9 -3.6 -0.6 -2.2

Q2 1964

2.2 4.0 1.7 2.2 4.5 3.8

Q3 1964

4.2 6.9 2.6 1.1 5.4 4.4

Q4 1964

-3.8 0.0 4.0 7.0 3.0 1.1

Q1 1965

5.8 12.6 6.4 -4.0 1.6 0.4

Q2 1965

1.9 6.0 4.0 0.8 2.7 0.1

Q3 1965

8.4 9.5 1.0 -3.8 4.3 3.0

Q4 1965

7.1 11.3 3.8 -1.0 6.0 3.8

Q1 1966

5.5 11.8 5.9 1.5 7.1 3.2

Q2 1966

-2.8 1.1 4.0 9.5 6.5 2.7

Q3 1966

1.3 3.2 1.9 4.5 5.8 2.3

Q4 1966

2.6 1.5 -1.1 2.9 5.5 2.1

Q1 1967

3.2 2.7 -0.5 2.2 5.5 4.5

Q2 1967

1.6 -0.9 -2.4 5.1 6.7 4.1

Q3 1967

2.1 3.4 1.3 3.4 5.5 1.4

Q4 1967

1.2 3.0 1.8 4.3 5.6 1.0

Q1 1968

9.3 10.0 0.7 1.8 11.2 6.9

Q2 1968

3.8 7.8 3.9 2.8 6.7 2.6

Q3 1968

0.2 3.0 2.8 6.5 6.7 1.1

Q4 1968

-1.0 1.5 2.5 9.2 8.2 3.0

Q1 1969

3.2 7.1 3.8 2.3 5.6 0.6

Q2 1969

-3.2 0.4 3.8 10.2 6.6 0.1

Q3 1969

0.5 2.4 1.9 6.8 7.3 1.6

Q4 1969

-1.9 -3.1 -1.2 10.1 8.0 1.6

Q1 1970

1.3 -0.3 -1.6 6.1 7.4 0.8

Q2 1970

6.1 0.6 -5.2 0.5 6.5 0.8

Q3 1970

6.5 4.4 -2.0 0.2 6.7 2.4

Q4 1970

-3.6 -6.5 -3.0 7.9 4.1 -1.8

Q1 1971

12.4 14.5 1.9 -3.4 8.5 4.9

Q2 1971

1.2 2.5 1.3 4.8 6.0 2.2

Q3 1971

3.9 3.9 0.0 1.7 5.6 1.5

Q4 1971

-3.4 0.8 4.4 6.4 2.8 -0.2

Q1 1972

6.4 11.3 4.6 4.9 11.6 8.1

Q2 1972

8.1 11.3 2.9 -3.1 4.7 2.1

Q3 1972

2.3 4.7 2.3 3.0 5.4 2.1

Q4 1972

3.5 7.9 4.3 4.1 7.7 3.4

Q1 1973

9.3 16.1 6.2 1.5 11.0 4.2

Q2 1973

0.1 4.4 4.3 5.5 5.7 -2.7

Q3 1973

-3.7 -1.1 2.7 11.2 7.1 -0.9

Q4 1973

-2.5 -0.5 2.0 11.1 8.3 -2.0

Q1 1974

-0.9 -2.6 -1.7 10.4 9.4 -2.7

Q2 1974

-1.2 -0.1 1.1 12.2 10.9 -0.2

Q3 1974

-4.0 -5.3 -1.4 17.1 12.4 0.6

Q4 1974

3.7 -3.0 -6.5 7.5 11.5 -1.2

Q1 1975

3.2 -9.2 -12.0 9.2 12.7 3.6

Q2 1975

6.6 2.7 -3.6 2.1 8.8 3.7

Q3 1975

5.0 8.9 3.7 2.2 7.2 -0.9

Q4 1975

0.4 7.5 7.1 6.3 6.7 -0.8

Q1 1976

6.1 13.2 6.7 1.7 7.9 3.1

Q2 1976

3.8 4.0 0.2 3.8 7.7 4.0

Q3 1976

1.0 2.6 1.6 7.6 8.7 2.0

Q4 1976

1.2 3.4 2.2 7.5 8.8 2.7

Q1 1977

2.6 7.0 4.3 5.1 7.8 0.2

Q2 1977

1.6 9.6 7.9 6.7 8.4 1.1

Q3 1977

4.3 8.8 4.4 3.6 8.0 2.2

Q4 1977

-5.0 -1.2 4.0 12.7 7.1 1.0

Q1 1978

0.2 2.1 1.9 10.8 11.0 4.5

Q2 1978

8.1 21.3 12.2 -1.0 7.0 -1.8

Q3 1978

0.3 3.7 3.4 7.6 7.9 0.4

Q4 1978

2.6 7.7 4.9 7.5 10.3 2.1

Q1 1979

-3.6 -0.8 2.9 14.8 10.7 1.1

Q2 1979

-0.7 0.5 1.3 10.3 9.5 -1.6

Q3 1979

-0.5 3.2 3.7 9.8 9.2 -1.7

Q4 1979

-0.4 0.4 0.8 11.0 10.6 0.2

Q1 1980

2.0 0.9 -1.0 9.6 11.7 -1.4

Q2 1980

-4.0 -10.9 -7.1 16.0 11.3 1.1

Q3 1980

1.6 -0.2 -1.8 8.8 10.6 0.5

Q4 1980

4.1 9.8 5.5 6.7 11.1 1.2

Q1 1981

6.3 8.8 2.3 3.9 10.4 -1.0

Q2 1981

-5.1 -4.8 0.3 12.8 7.1 -0.6

Q3 1981

3.9 3.6 -0.3 5.2 9.3 0.9

Q4 1981

-4.1 -5.8 -1.8 11.3 6.8 -0.3

Q1 1982

-1.8 -8.4 -6.7 13.1 11.0 5.8

Q2 1982

0.0 1.9 1.9 3.1 3.1 -1.1

Q3 1982

0.7 -2.1 -2.9 5.6 6.4 -0.6

Q4 1982

3.4 -0.4 -3.7 2.5 6.1 1.5

Q1 1983

5.2 7.9 2.5 -1.1 4.1 1.7

Q2 1983

8.9 14.1 4.8 -4.6 3.9 -1.0

Q3 1983

1.8 10.2 8.3 0.3 2.1 -1.7

Q4 1983

2.2 10.1 7.7 2.4 4.7 0.9

Q1 1984

1.5 9.5 7.9 3.1 4.6 -0.9

Q2 1984

2.4 7.8 5.3 1.8 4.3 0.4

Q3 1984

1.8 3.6 1.7 4.1 6.0 2.8

Q4 1984

0.5 3.1 2.6 2.8 3.3 -0.1

Q1 1985

1.2 4.5 3.2 4.0 5.2 1.5

Q2 1985

1.3 4.0 2.7 2.6 3.9 0.3

Q3 1985

5.2 6.4 1.1 0.8 6.1 3.4

Q4 1985

1.6 3.7 2.0 6.1 7.8 3.8

Q1 1986

4.9 4.2 -0.6 0.9 5.9 3.7

Q2 1986

3.2 2.1 -1.1 1.5 4.7 6.9

Q3 1986

1.7 3.8 2.0 3.3 5.1 2.7

Q4 1986

-0.8 2.2 3.0 6.4 5.5 2.9

Q1 1987

-1.8 3.2 5.1 3.7 1.8 -2.8

Q2 1987

2.8 5.1 2.2 0.2 3.0 -1.3

Q3 1987

0.1 2.9 2.8 4.1 4.2 0.1

Q4 1987

3.9 8.4 4.3 0.8 4.8 1.6

Q1 1988

1.4 1.8 0.4 5.6 7.1 4.3

Q2 1988

1.0 6.9 5.8 3.9 4.9 0.6

Q3 1988

1.1 2.1 1.0 3.9 5.0 0.4

Q4 1988

0.9 5.6 4.6 2.1 3.0 -0.7

Q1 1989

0.2 4.3 4.0 0.9 1.2 -2.9

Q2 1989

1.3 2.8 1.5 0.4 1.7 -4.2

Q3 1989

2.0 2.9 0.9 1.7 3.7 0.7

Q4 1989

0.1 0.1 0.0 5.8 5.9 2.2

Q1 1990

3.8 5.0 1.2 4.0 8.0 1.4

Q2 1990

2.8 1.0 -1.8 5.1 8.1 4.2

Q3 1990

1.3 -0.8 -2.1 4.0 5.4 -1.2

Q4 1990

-4.1 -5.7 -1.7 7.5 3.1 -3.1

Q1 1991

1.3 -2.7 -3.9 1.1 2.4 0.3

Q2 1991

6.6 4.0 -2.4 1.2 7.9 5.9

Q3 1991

3.5 3.0 -0.5 1.4 4.9 2.4

Q4 1991

1.9 1.2 -0.7 3.5 5.4 2.4

Q1 1992

8.2 5.6 -2.4 2.4 10.8 8.5

Q2 1992

3.5 5.1 1.5 0.3 3.8 1.0

Q3 1992

3.6 4.3 0.7 1.0 4.6 2.0

Q4 1992

2.5 5.1 2.6 -0.2 2.2 -0.8

Q1 1993

-3.4 0.1 3.6 0.5 -2.9 -4.9

Q2 1993

-2.3 2.2 4.6 5.5 3.0 0.1

Q3 1993

1.7 4.2 2.4 -1.6 0.1 -1.3

Q4 1993

1.6 5.5 3.8 1.4 3.0 0.2

Q1 1994

1.2 3.7 2.5 -3.4 -2.3 -3.4

Q2 1994

0.3 7.0 6.7 3.0 3.4 1.1

Q3 1994

-2.3 2.4 4.8 2.2 -0.1 -3.1

Q4 1994

4.3 6.0 1.7 -1.1 3.2 1.4

Q1 1995

0.3 2.2 1.9 2.1 2.4 -0.1

Q2 1995

1.9 1.3 -0.6 1.4 3.4 0.3

Q3 1995

-0.1 4.6 4.7 2.3 2.2 0.3

Q4 1995

2.3 3.3 1.0 1.0 3.3 1.2

Q1 1996

2.6 3.3 0.7 1.9 4.5 1.3

Q2 1996

3.9 7.9 3.8 -0.2 3.8 0.3

Q3 1996

1.5 4.9 3.4 1.6 3.1 1.0

Q4 1996

0.3 5.0 4.7 2.0 2.3 -1.0

Q1 1997

-0.8 2.6 3.4 5.6 4.7 2.5

Q2 1997

6.1 8.1 1.9 -2.2 3.7 2.7

Q3 1997

3.4 5.8 2.4 0.7 4.1 2.3

Q4 1997

2.0 3.9 1.9 5.3 7.4 5.2

Q1 1998

3.7 6.3 2.5 3.2 6.9 6.3

Q2 1998

2.2 4.3 2.1 2.9 5.2 4.0

Q3 1998

5.4 6.0 0.5 1.1 6.6 4.8

Q4 1998

3.1 8.3 5.0 -0.8 2.3 0.6

Q1 1999

5.7 5.0 -0.6 1.5 7.3 5.9

Q2 1999

1.4 3.6 2.2 0.3 1.7 -1.4

Q3 1999

3.9 6.6 2.6 -0.3 3.5 0.5

Q4 1999

6.0 7.7 1.7 2.2 8.3 5.0

Q1 2000

-1.5 0.4 2.0 16.7 14.9 10.4

Q2 2000

7.9 9.1 1.1 -6.4 1.0 -2.1

Q3 2000

-0.1 -0.3 -0.2 8.1 8.0 4.1

Q4 2000

4.0 2.6 -1.4 -1.8 2.2 -0.6

Q1 2001

-2.1 -2.3 -0.2 11.7 9.4 5.2

Q2 2001

7.1 3.1 -3.8 -5.1 1.6 -1.3

Q3 2001

2.4 -2.6 -4.9 -1.8 0.6 -0.5

Q4 2001

5.1 0.5 -4.4 -1.3 3.7 4.1

Q1 2002

8.6 4.9 -3.4 -6.2 1.9 0.5

Q2 2002

0.8 1.8 1.0 2.7 3.5 0.3

Q3 2002

2.9 1.5 -1.4 -0.9 2.1 -0.1

Q4 2002

-0.4 0.1 0.5 1.4 1.0 -1.3

Q1 2003

3.9 1.8 -2.1 -1.4 2.5 -1.6

Q2 2003

5.4 4.2 -1.2 1.6 7.1 7.8

Q3 2003

9.0 9.7 0.6 -2.7 6.1 3.0

Q4 2003

3.7 5.8 2.0 1.9 5.7 4.0

Q1 2004

-0.9 0.7 1.6 0.2 -0.7 -4.0

Q2 2004

4.2 4.5 0.3 3.6 8.0 4.7

Q3 2004

1.6 4.3 2.6 5.6 7.3 4.7

Q4 2004

2.0 4.2 2.1 -0.3 1.7 -2.6

Q1 2005

4.7 5.5 0.8 -1.8 2.8 0.8

Q2 2005

-0.8 1.5 2.3 3.2 2.4 -0.4

Q3 2005

2.5 3.8 1.3 2.5 5.1 -1.0

Q4 2005

0.4 2.8 2.4 2.1 2.5 -1.3

Q1 2006

3.0 7.2 4.0 5.0 8.2 6.0

Q2 2006

-0.7 0.6 1.3 1.0 0.3 -3.3

Q3 2006

-1.2 0.7 2.0 1.9 0.6 -3.0

Q4 2006

3.3 4.5 1.1 3.8 7.3 9.0

Q1 2007

1.0 1.2 0.1 9.0 10.2 6.0

Q2 2007

1.4 3.2 1.8 -1.6 -0.3 -4.7

Q3 2007

3.8 2.6 -1.2 -2.2 1.5 -1.0

Q4 2007

3.3 1.9 -1.3 1.4 4.7 -0.2

Q1 2008

-2.6 -3.7 -1.1 6.7 3.9 -0.6

Q2 2008

4.6 2.1 -2.3 -3.7 0.7 -4.4

Q3 2008

0.9 -3.4 -4.3 2.9 3.8 -2.3

Q4 2008

-2.3 -11.7 -9.6 6.5 4.1 14.2

Q1 2009

3.8 -6.4 -9.8 -13.3 -10.0 -7.5

Q2 2009

8.7 -0.8 -8.7 1.5 10.4 8.1

Q3 2009

5.4 1.4 -3.8 -3.1 2.2 -1.2

Q4 2009

6.3 5.4 -0.8 -3.4 2.7 -0.4

Q1 2010

2.2 2.2 0.0 -4.6 -2.4 -3.1

Q2 2010

0.6 4.5 3.8 3.4 4.1 4.2

Q3 2010

2.2 4.6 2.3 -0.5 1.7 0.5

Q4 2010

1.7 3.1 1.4 0.5 2.2 -1.0

Q1 2011

-2.7 -2.1 0.6 10.6 7.7 3.2

Q2 2011

0.5 4.2 3.7 -3.3 -2.8 -7.1

Q3 2011

-1.3 0.2 1.5 4.3 2.9 0.3

Q4 2011

2.8 5.9 3.0 -7.8 -5.3 -7.0

Q1 2012

1.8 5.1 3.2 8.0 10.0 7.4

Q2 2012

1.7 2.6 0.9 0.3 2.0 1.2

Q3 2012

-0.4 1.2 1.6 0.8 0.4 -1.5

Q4 2012

-1.3 0.8 2.1 12.5 11.0 8.1

Q1 2013

2.2 3.8 1.6 -7.7 -5.6 -7.2

Q2 2013

-1.3 0.2 1.6 4.3 3.0 3.4

Q3 2013

1.9 4.2 2.3 -2.9 -1.1 -3.2

Q4 2013

2.8 4.2 1.3 0.0 2.8 1.3

Q1 2014

-4.0 -2.1 1.9 12.5 8.1 5.3

Q2 2014

3.9 6.8 2.8 -5.4 -1.7 -3.8

Q3 2014

3.6 6.4 2.7 -0.9 2.6 1.5

Q4 2014

-2.2 2.3 4.6 6.7 4.3 5.3

Q1 2015

3.5 4.0 0.5 1.8 5.4 8.1

Q2 2015

1.1 3.0 1.8 2.2 3.3 0.5

Q3 2015

-0.1 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.3 -0.2

Q4 2015

-1.6 0.4 2.0 1.5 -0.1 -0.1

Q1 2016

1.4 2.7 1.3 -1.0 0.3 0.5

Q2 2016

-0.3 1.2 1.5 1.4 1.1 -2.0

Q3 2016

1.6 2.8 1.2 0.1 1.8 0.0

Q4 2016

2.3 2.8 0.4 2.0 4.4 1.8

Q1 2017

0.4 1.9 1.6 3.6 4.0 1.2

Q2 2017

-0.3 2.8 3.1 2.5 2.2 1.6

Q3 2017

3.2 3.8 0.6 1.8 5.1 3.1

Q4 2017

1.7 4.7 2.9 4.0 5.8 2.6

Q1 2018

1.2 3.6 2.4 1.1 2.3 -0.8

Q2 2018

1.6 3.9 2.2 -0.4 1.2 -1.3

Q3 2018

1.1 2.2 1.1 4.1 5.3 3.6

Q4 2018

0.1 1.1 1.0 1.6 1.7 0.1

Q1 2019

3.4 3.4 0.0 5.6 9.2 8.4

Q2 2019

4.3 3.6 -0.7 -2.8 1.4 -2.0

Q3 2019

0.8 3.2 2.4 -0.5 0.2 -1.1

Q4 2019

0.6 1.8 1.2 3.5 4.1 1.5

Q1 2020

-1.8 -7.4 -5.7 11.3 9.3 8.2

Q2 2020

11.2 -36.9 -43.2 10.3 22.7 26.6

Q3 2020

4.6 44.6 38.2 -9.9 -5.7 -10.0

Q4 2020

-3.4 6.2 9.9 13.3 9.4 6.8

Q1 2021

4.3 8.4 4.0 -2.8 1.4 -2.2

Q2 2021

2.4 8.5 5.9 5.9 8.4 0.0

Q3 2021

-5.2 1.8 7.4 9.6 3.9 -2.5

Unit labor costs in the nonfarm business sector increased at an annual rate of 9.6 percent in the third quarter of 2021, reflecting a 3.9-percent increase in hourly compensation and a 5.2-percent decrease in productivity.

These data are from the Labor Productivity and Costs program and are seasonally adjusted annual rates, subject to revision. To learn more, see "Productivity and Costs — Third Quarter 2021, Revised." Also see Charts related to the latest "Productivity and Costs" news release. Labor productivity, or output per hour, is calculated by dividing an index of real output by an index of hours worked for all persons, including employees, proprietors, and unpaid family workers.

SUGGESTED CITATION

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, The Economics Daily, Nonfarm business productivity down 5.2 percent, unit labor costs up 9.6 percent, third quarter 2021 at https://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2021/nonfarm-business-productivity-down-5-2-percent-unit-labor-costs-up-9-6-percent-third-quarter-2021.htm (visited November 28, 2022).