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Productivity
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Productivity Home Page

The Office of Productivity and Technology (OPT) measures how efficiently the U.S. converts inputs into the outputs of goods and services.  Measures of labor productivity compare the growth in output to the growth in hours worked and measures of total factor productivity (TFP), also known as multifactor productivity (MFP), compare growth in output to the growth in a combination of inputs that include labor, capital, energy, materials, and purchased services.

Notices

  • Help us serve your needs—Opportunity to provide Feedback on BLS Productivity Data Read More »
  • Second Revision of Total Factor Productivity for Detailed Industries - 2020 Read More »
  • Updated Manufacturing and Mining Labor Productivity Highlights - 2022 Read More »

Videos

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Graphics

Bar chart of labor productivity average annual percent changes in the non farm business sector for business cycles since 1947. Chart data are included in the linked page below.

Click the graphic to enlarge chart: Long-term labor productivity in the nonfarm business sector since 1947.

State map of labor productivity, 1-year percent change. Chart data are included in the linked table below.

Click the graphic to enlarge chart: Labor Productivity by State, Percent Change.

Stacked bar graph of the contribution of sources that total labor productivity, total factor productivity, labor composition, capital intensity. Average annual percent changem in in private business sector business cycles. Chart data are included in the linked table below.

Click the graphic to enlarge chart: Contributions to Labor Productivity Growth, Private Nonfarm Business Sector, Selected Time Periods.

Line graph of labor productivity and real hourly compenstation since 1973, commonly referred to as the wage gap. In log index values with base year 1973. Chart data are included in the linked table below.

Click the graphic to enlarge chart: Labor Productivity and Real Hourly Compensation, Nonfarm Business Sector since 1973.

Line graph of detailed industries labor productivity indexes of food and beverage store industries: Beer and wine liquor stores (NAICS 4453), Food and beverage stores (NAICS 445), Grocery stores (NAICS 4451), and Specialty food stores (NAICS 4452).  Chart data are included in the linked table below.

Click the graphic to enlarge chart: Detailed Industries Help Tell the Story, Indexes of Productivity Within Food and Beverage Stores.

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Latest Numbers

RSS
NONFARM BUSINESS SECTOR:

Labor productivity (output per hour) +3.2% in 4th Qtr of 2023 Historical Data

Hourly compensation +3.6%(r) in 4th Qtr of 2023 Historical Data

Unit labor costs +0.4%(r) in 4th Qtr of 2023 Historical Data

Real value-added output +3.5%(r) in 4th Qtr of 2023 Historical Data

Hours worked +0.3%(r) in 4th Qtr of 2023 Historical Data

MANUFACTURING SECTOR:

Labor productivity (output per hour) +1.3%(r) in 4th Qtr of 2023 Historical Data

Hourly compensation +6.7%(r) in 4th Qtr of 2023 Historical Data

Unit labor costs +5.3%(r) in 4th Qtr of 2023 Historical Data

Real sectoral output -2.0%(r) in 4th Qtr of 2023 Historical Data

Hours worked -3.3%(r) in 4th Qtr of 2023 Historical Data

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News Releases

//PROD2 RMC Test 03202024// Productivity decreases 5.0% in Q4 2023

03/20/2024

//PROD2 RMC Test 03202024// Productivity decreased 5 percent in nonfarm business sector fourth quarter 2023.
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//PRIN1 QCT Resilio Sched Test 10/4/2023// Productivity rises in 30 of 46 wholesale and...

10/04/2023

//PRIN1 QCT Resilio Sched Test 10/4/2023// Retail trade productivity increased 5.3 percent in 2019.
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//QCT Resilio Test 9/28/2023// Productivity and Costs: Selective Service-Providing and...

09/28/2023

//QCT Resilio Test 9/28/2023//Test Labor productivity (output per hour) rose in 64 percent.
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//QCT Resilio Test 09/28/2023// Productivity rises in 45 states and the District of...

09/28/2023

//QCT Resilio Test 09/28/2023// Labor productivity increased in 45 states and the District of Columbia in 2022.
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//PRIN QCT Resilio Test 10/10/2023// Productivity rises in 42 of 90 manufacturing and...

10/10/2023

//PRIN QCT Resilio Test 10/10/2023// Labor productivity increased in 41 of the 86 NAICS 4-digit manufacturing industries.
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//PROD3 QCT Resilio Test 09/29/2023// Total factor productivity decreases 1.7% in 2020

09/29/2023

//PROD3 QCT Resilio Test 09/29/2023// In 2020 total factor productivity declined at a 1.7-percent annual rate.
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//PROD5 QCT Sched Test 1/12/2024// Total factor productivity increased in 15 out of 21...

01/12/2024

//PROD5 QCT Sched Test 1/12/2024// In 2021, total factor productivity increased in 15 out of 21 major industries.
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//QCT Resilio Test 09/28/2023// Total factor productivity fell in 61 of 86 4-digit NAICS...

09/28/2023

//QCT Resilio Test 09/28/2023// Total factor productivity fell in 61 of 86 4-digit NAICS manufacturing industries in 2019
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Next Releases

Productivity and Costs: Fourth Quarter 2023, Revised is scheduled to be released on March 22, 2024 at 8:30 A.M. Eastern Time.
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Publications

The Economics Daily

The Economics Daily article image

Labor productivity down 1.2 percent in wholesale trade and 0.4 percent in retail trade in 2022

In 2022, labor productivity fell 1.2 percent in wholesale trade, the largest decrease since 2009. Hours worked increased 2.9 percent and output increased 1.6 percent in wholesale trade. In retail trade, productivity fell 0.4 percent in 2022, as output fell 1.3 percent and hours worked decreased 1.0 percent. The declines in productivity were the first since 2011 for wholesale trade and 2008 for retail trade. read more »

Monthly Labor Review

Monthly Labor Review article image

Alternative capital asset depreciation rates for U.S. capital and total factor productivity measures

The use of faster depreciation rates based on recent evidence from U.S. and Canadian studies resulted in lower estimates of net capital stocks and higher depreciation estimates in BEA’s fixed assets accounts, with minimal effects on total factor productivity growth rates in the BLS accounts. read more »

Spotlight on Statistics

Spotlight on Statistics article image

Spotlight on State Productivity Statistics

This Spotlight looks at some short- and long-term state-level trends for labor productivity, output, and hours worked, and labor compensation. read more »

Beyond the Numbers

Beyond the Numbers article image

Checking out productivity in grocery stores

In this Beyond the Numbers article, we review the timeline for the development and implementation of new retail technologies in grocery stores. Then, check out the shifts in products and services offered by grocery stores over time. Using Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) data, the article looks at the trends in employment and hours to show how all of these factors influenced labor productivity in grocery stores. read more »